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Nosocomial infections in intensive care unit in a Turkish university hospital: a 2-year survey

Hakan Erbay| Ata Nevzat Yalcin| Simay Serin| Huseyin Turgut| Erkan Tomatir| Banu Cetin| Mehmet Zencir
Original
Volume 29, Issue 9 / September , 2003

Pages 1482 - 1488

Abstract

Objective

To determine epidemiology and risk factors for nosocomial infections in intensive care unit (ICU).

Design

Prospective incidence survey.

Setting

An adult general ICU in a university hospital in western Turkey.

Patients

All patients who stayed more than 48 h in ICU during a 2-year period (2000–2001).

Measurements and results

The study included 434 patients (7394 patient-days). A total of 225 infections were identified in 113 patients (26%). The incidence and infection rates were 56.8 in 1000-patient days and 51.8%, respectively. The infections were pneumonia (40.9%), bloodstream (30.2%), urinary tract (23.6%) and surgical site infections (5.3%). Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22.6%), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (22.2%) and Acinetobacter spp. (11.9%) were frequently isolated micro-organisms. Median length of stay with nosocomial infection and without were 13 days (Interquartile range, IQR, 20) and 2 days (IQR, 2), respectively (P<0.0001). In logistic regression analysis, mechanical ventilation [odds ratio (OR): 16.35; 95% confidence interval (CI): 8.26–32.34; P<0.0001), coma (OR: 15.04; 95% CI: 3.41–66.33; P=0.0003), trauma (OR: 10.27; 95% CI: 2.34–45.01; P=0.002), nasogastric tube (OR: 2.94; 95% CI: 1.47–5.90; P=0.002), tracheotomy (OR: 5.77; 95% CI: 1.10–30.20; P=0.04) and APACHE II scores 10–19 (OR: 10.80; 95% CI: 1.10–106.01; P=0.04) were found to be significant risk factors for nosocomial infection. Rate of nosocomial infection increased with the number of risk factors (P<0.0001). Mortality rates were higher in infected patients than in non-infected patients (60.9 vs 22.1%; P<0.0001).

Conclusion

These data suggest that, in addition to underlying clinical conditions, some invasive procedures can be independent risk factors for nosocomial infection in ICU.

Keywords

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