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Quantitative versus standard pupillary light reflex for early prognostication in comatose cardiac arrest patients: an international prospective multicenter double-blinded studyOpen access

Mauro Oddo| Claudio Sandroni| Giuseppe Citerio| John-Paul Miroz| Janneke Horn| Malin Rundgren| Alain Cariou| Jean-François Payen| Christian Storm| Pascal Stammet| Fabio Silvio Taccone
Original
Volume 44, Issue 12 / December , 2018

Pages 2102 - 2111

Abstract

Purpose

To assess the ability of quantitative pupillometry [using the Neurological Pupil index (NPi)] to predict an unfavorable neurological outcome after cardiac arrest (CA).

Methods

We performed a prospective international multicenter study (10 centers) in adult comatose CA patients. Quantitative NPi and standard manual pupillary light reflex (sPLR)—blinded to clinicians and outcome assessors—were recorded in parallel from day 1 to 3 after CA. Primary study endpoint was to compare the value of NPi versus sPLR to predict 3-month Cerebral Performance Category (CPC), dichotomized as favorable (CPC 1–2: full recovery or moderate disability) versus unfavorable outcome (CPC 3–5: severe disability, vegetative state, or death).

Results

At any time between day 1 and 3, an NPi ≤ 2 (n = 456 patients) had a 51% (95% CI 49–53) negative predictive value and a 100% positive predictive value [PPV; 0% (0–2) false-positive rate], with a 100% (98–100) specificity and 32% (27–38) sensitivity for the prediction of unfavorable outcome. Compared with NPi, sPLR had significantly lower PPV and significantly lower specificity (p  < 0.001 at day 1 and 2; p  = 0.06 at day 3). The combination of NPi ≤ 2 with bilaterally absent somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP; n = 188 patients) provided higher sensitivity [58% (49–67) vs. 48% (39–57) for SSEP alone], with comparable specificity [100% (94–100)].

Conclusions

Quantitative NPi had excellent ability to predict an unfavorable outcome from day 1 after CA, with no false positives, and significantly higher specificity than standard manual pupillary examination. The addition of NPi to SSEP increased sensitivity of outcome prediction, while maintaining 100% specificity.

Keywords

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