Log in | Register

Fluid administration for acute circulatory dysfunction using basic monitoring: narrative review and expert panel recommendations from an ESICM task force

Maurizio Cecconi| Glenn Hernandez| Martin Dunser| Massimo Antonelli| Tim Baker| Jan Bakker| Jacques Duranteau| Sharon Einav| A. B. Johan Groeneveld| Tim Harris| Sameer Jog| Flavia R. Machado| Mervyn Mer| M. Ignacio Monge García| Sheila Nainan Myatra| Anders Perner| Jean-Louis Teboul| Jean-Louis Vincent| Daniel De Backer
Conference Reports and Expert Panel
Volume 45, Issue 1 / January , 2019

Pages 21 - 32

Abstract

An international team of experts in the field of fluid resuscitation was invited by the ESICM to form a task force to systematically review the evidence concerning fluid administration using basic monitoring. The work included a particular emphasis on pre-ICU hospital settings and resource-limited settings. The work focused on four main questions: (1) What is the role of clinical assessment to guide fluid resuscitation in shock? (2) What basic monitoring is required to perform and interpret a fluid challenge? (3) What defines a fluid challenge in terms of fluid type, ranges of volume, and rate of administration? (4) What are the safety endpoints during a fluid challenge? The expert panel found insufficient evidence to provide recommendations according to the GRADE system, and was only able to make recommendations for basic interventions, based on the available evidence and expert opinion. The panel identified significant gaps in the scientific evidence on fluid administration outside the ICU (excluding the operating theater). Globally, scientific communities and health care systems should address these critical gaps in evidence through research on how basic fluid administration in resource-rich and resource-limited settings can be improved for the benefit of patients and societies worldwide.

Keywords

References

  1. Cecconi M, Hofer C, Teboul JL, Pettila V, Wilkman E, Molnar Z, Della Rocca G, Aldecoa C, Artigas A, Jog S, Sander M, Spies C, Lefrant JY, De Backer D, FENICE Investigators, ESICM Trial Group (2015) Fluid challenges in intensive care: the FENICE study: A global inception cohort study. Intensive care medicine 41:1529–1537
  2. Atkins D, Eccles M, Flottorp S, Guyatt GH, Henry D, Hill S, Liberati A, O’Connell D, Oxman AD, Phillips B, Schunemann H, Edejer TT, Vist GE, Williams JW Jr, Group GW (2004) Systems for grading the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations I: critical appraisal of existing approaches The GRADE Working Group. BMC Health Serv Res 4:38
  3. Glassford NJ, Eastwood GM, Bellomo R (2014) Physiological changes after fluid bolus therapy in sepsis: a systematic review of contemporary data. Crit Care 18:696
  4. Maitland K, Kiguli S, Opoka RO, Engoru C, Olupot-Olupot P, Akech SO, Nyeko R, Mtove G, Reyburn H, Lang T, Brent B, Evans JA, Tibenderana JK, Crawley J, Russell EC, Levin M, Babiker AG, Gibb DM, FEAST Trial Group (2011) Mortality after fluid bolus in African children with severe infection. N Engl J Med 364:2483–2495
  5. Maitland K, George EC, Evans JA, Kiguli S, Olupot-Olupot P, Akech SO, Opoka RO, Engoru C, Nyeko R, Mtove G, Reyburn H, Brent B, Nteziyaremye J, Mpoya A, Prevatt N, Dambisya CM, Semakula D, Ddungu A, Okuuny V, Wokulira R, Timbwa M, Otii B, Levin M, Crawley J, Babiker AG, Gibb DM, FEAST Trial Group (2013) Exploring mechanisms of excess mortality with early fluid resuscitation: insights from the FEAST trial. BMC Med 11:68
  6. Meregalli A, Oliveira RP, Friedman G (2004) Occult hypoperfusion is associated with increased mortality in hemodynamically stable, high-risk, surgical patients. Crit Care 8:R60–R65
  7. Claridge JA, Crabtree TD, Pelletier SJ, Butler K, Sawyer RG, Young JS (2000) Persistent occult hypoperfusion is associated with a significant increase in infection rate and mortality in major trauma patients. J Trauma 48:8–14 (discussion 14–15)
  8. Callaway DW, Shapiro NI, Donnino MW, Baker C, Rosen CL (2009) Serum lactate and base deficit as predictors of mortality in normotensive elderly blunt trauma patients. J Trauma 66:1040–1044
  9. Sadaka F, Juarez M, Naydenov S, O’Brien J (2014) Fluid resuscitation in septic shock: the effect of increasing fluid balance on mortality. J Intensive Care Med 29:213–217
  10. Vincent J-L, De Backer D (2013) Circulatory shock. N Engl J Med 369:1726–1734
  11. Cecconi M, De Backer D, Antonelli M, Beale R, Bakker J, Hofer C, Jaeschke R, Mebazaa A, Pinsky MR, Teboul JL, Vincent JL, Rhodes A (2014) Consensus on circulatory shock and hemodynamic monitoring. Task force of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. Intensive Care Med 40:1795–1815
  12. Rhodes A, Evans LE, Alhazzani W, Levy MM, Antonelli M, Ferrer R, Kumar A, Sevransky JE, Sprung CL, Nunnally ME, Rochwerg B, Rubenfeld GD, Angus DC, Annane D, Beale RJ, Bellinghan GJ, Bernard GR, Chiche JD, Coopersmith C, De Backer DP, French CJ, Fujishima S, Gerlach H, Hidalgo JL, Hollenberg SM, Jones AE, Karnad DR, Kleinpell RM, Koh Y, Lisboa TC, Machado FR, Marini JJ, Marshall JC, Mazuski JE, McIntyre LA, McLean AS, Mehta S, Moreno RP, Myburgh J, Navalesi P, Nishida O, Osborn TM, Perner A, Plunkett CM, Ranieri M, Schorr CA, Seckel MA, Seymour CW, Shieh L, Shukri KA, Simpson SQ, Singer M, Thompson BT, Townsend SR, Van der Poll T, Vincent JL, Wiersinga WJ, Zimmerman JL, Dellinger RP (2017) Surviving sepsis campaign: international guidelines for management of sepsis and septic shock: 2016. Intensive Care Med 43:304–377
  13. Singer M, Deutschman CS, Seymour CW, Shankar-Hari M, Annane D, Bauer M, Bellomo R, Bernard GR, Chiche JD, Coopersmith CM, Hotchkiss RS, Levy MM, Marshall JC, Martin GS, Opal SM, Rubenfeld GD, van der Poll T, Vincent JL, Angus DC (2016) The third international consensus definitions for sepsis and septic shock (Sepsis-3). JAMA 315:801–810
  14. Padhi S, Bullock I, Li L, Stroud M (2013) Intravenous fluid therapy for adults in hospital: summary of NICE guidance. BMJ 347:f7073
  15. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) (2007) Acutely ill adults in hospital: recognising and responding to deterioration. NICE guidelines [CG50]. In: Editor book acutely ill adults in hospital: recognising and responding to deterioration. NICE guidelines [CG50]
  16. Vincent JL, Einav S, Pearse R, Jaber S, Kranke P, Overdyk FJ, Whitaker DK, Gordo F, Dahan A, Hoeft A (2018) Improving detection of patient deterioration in the general hospital ward environment. Eur J Anaesthesiol 35:325–333
  17. Froom P, Shimoni Z (2006) Prediction of hospital mortality rates by admission laboratory tests. Clin Chem 52:325–328
  18. Abramson D, Scalea TM, Hitchcock R, Stanley Z, Trooskin Z, Henry SM, Greenspan J (1993) Lactate clearance and survival following injury. J Trauma 35:584–589
  19. Rixen D, Raum M, Bouillon B, Lefering R, Neugebauer E, Arbeitsgemeinschaft “Polytrauma” of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Unfallchirurgie (2001) Base deficit development and its prognostic significance in posttrauma critical illness: an analysis by the trauma registry of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fur unfallchirurgie. Shock 15:83–89
  20. Cohn SM, Nathens AB, Moore FA, Rhee P, Puyana JC, Moore EE, Beilman GJ, StO2 in Trauma Patients Trial Investigators (2007) Tissue oxygen saturation predicts the development of organ dysfunction during traumatic shock resuscitation. J Trauma 62:44–54 (discussion 54–45)
  21. Nguyen HB, Rivers EP, Knoblich BP, Jacobsen G, Muzzin A, Ressler JA, Tomlanovich MC (2004) Early lactate clearance is associated with improved outcome in severe sepsis and septic shock. Crit Care Med 32:1637–1642
  22. Mizock BA, Falk JL (1992) Lactic acidosis in critical illness. Crit Care Med 20:80–93
  23. Hernandez G, Bellomo R, Bakker J (2018) The ten pitfalls of lactate clearance in sepsis. Intensive Care Med 12:1–4
  24. Nichols W, O’ Rourke MF (2005) McDonald’s blood flow in arteries. Theor Exp Clin Princ 5:233–267
  25. Morelli A, De Backer D (2017) The ten principles behind arterial pressure. Intensive Care Med 44:911–914
  26. Belle J, Cohen H, Shindo N, Lim M, Velazquez-Berumen A, Ndihokubwayo JB, Cherian M (2010) Influenza preparedness in low-resource settings: a look at oxygen delivery in 12 African countries. J Infect Dev Ctries 4:419–424
  27. Baelani I, Jochberger S, Laimer T, Otieno D, Kabutu J, Wilson I, Baker T, Dunser MW (2011) Availability of critical care resources to treat patients with severe sepsis or septic shock in Africa: a self-reported, continent-wide survey of anaesthesia providers. Crit Care 15:R10
  28. Hsia RY, Mbembati NA, Macfarlane S, Kruk ME (2012) Access to emergency and surgical care in sub-Saharan Africa: the infrastructure gap. Health Policy Plan 27:234–244
  29. Bataar O, Lundeg G, Tsenddorj G, Jochberger S, Grander W, Baelani I, Wilson I, Baker T, Dunser MW, Helfen Beruhrt Study Team (2010) Nationwide survey on resource availability for implementing current sepsis guidelines in Mongolia. Bull World Health Organ 88:839–846
  30. Baker T, Schell CO, Lugazia E, Blixt J, Mulungu M, Castegren M, Eriksen J, Konrad D (2015) Vital signs directed therapy: improving care in an intensive care unit in a low-income country. PLoS One 10:e0144801
  31. Guly HR, Bouamra O, Spiers M, Dark P, Coats T, Lecky FE, Trauma Audit Research Network (2011) Vital signs and estimated blood loss in patients with major trauma: testing the validity of the ATLS classification of hypovolaemic shock. Resuscitation 82:556–559
  32. Luna GK, Eddy AC, Copass M (1989) The sensitivity of vital signs in identifying major thoracoabdominal hemorrhage. Am J Surg 157:512–515
  33. McGee S, Abernethy WB 3rd, Simel DL (1999) The rational clinical examination. Is this patient hypovolemic? JAMA 281:1022–1029
  34. Schell CO, Castegren M, Lugazia E, Blixt J, Mulungu M, Konrad D, Baker T (2015) Severely deranged vital signs as triggers for acute treatment modifications on an intensive care unit in a low-income country. BMC Res Notes 8:313
  35. Lamia B, Ochagavia A, Monnet X, Chemla D, Richard C, Teboul J-L (2007) Echocardiographic prediction of volume responsiveness in critically ill patients with spontaneously breathing activity. Intensive Care Med 33:1125–1132
  36. Jabot J, Teboul J-L, Richard C, Monnet X (2009) Passive leg raising for predicting fluid responsiveness: importance of the postural change. Intensive Care Med 35:85–90
  37. Barbier C, Loubieres Y, Schmit C, Hayon J, Ricome JL, Jardin F, Vieillard-Baron A (2004) Respiratory changes in inferior vena cava diameter are helpful in predicting fluid responsiveness in ventilated septic patients. Intensive Care Med 30:1740–1746
  38. Monnet X, Osman D, Ridel C, Lamia B, Richard C, Teboul J-L (2009) Predicting volume responsiveness by using the end-expiratory occlusion in mechanically ventilated intensive care unit patients. Crit Care Med 37:951–956
  39. Pottecher J, Deruddre S, Teboul J-L, Georger J-F, Laplace C, Benhamou D, Vicaut E, Duranteau J (2010) Both passive leg raising and intravascular volume expansion improve sublingual microcirculatory perfusion in severe sepsis and septic shock patients. Intensive Care Med 36:1867–1874
  40. Allgower M, Burri C (1967) Shock Index. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 92:1947–1950
  41. Rady MY, Nightingale P, Little RA, Edwards JD (1992) Shock Index: a re-evaluation in acute circulatory failure. Resuscitation 23:227–234
  42. Rady MY, Rivers EP, Martin GB, Smithline H, Appelton T, Nowak RM (1992) Continuous central venous oximetry and shock Index in the emergency department—use in the evaluation of clinical shock. Am J Emerg Med 10:538–541
  43. Mutschler M, Nienaber U, Munzberg M, Wolfl C, Schoechl H, Paffrath T, Bouillon B, Maegele M, TraumaRegister DGU (2013) The Shock Index revisited—a fast guide to transfusion requirement? A retrospective analysis on 21,853 patients derived from the TraumaRegister DGU. Crit Care 17:R172
  44. Berger T, Green J, Horeczko T, Hagar Y, Garg N, Suarez A, Panacek E, Shapiro N (2013) Shock Index and early recognition of sepsis in the emergency department: pilot study. West J Emerg Med 14:168–174
  45. Pro CI, Yealy DM, Kellum JA, Huang DT, Barnato AE, Weissfeld LA, Pike F, Terndrup T, Wang HE, Hou PC, LoVecchio F, Filbin MR, Shapiro NI, Angus DC (2014) A randomized trial of protocol-based care for early septic shock. N Engl J Med 370:1683–1693
  46. Pierrakos C, Velissaris D, Scolletta S, Heenen S, De Backer D, Vincent JL (2012) Can changes in arterial pressure be used to detect changes in cardiac index during fluid challenge in patients with septic shock? Intensive Care Med 38:422–428
  47. Lakhal K, Ehrmann S, Perrotin D, Wolff M, Boulain T (2013) Fluid challenge: tracking changes in cardiac output with blood pressure monitoring (invasive or non-invasive). Intensive Care Med 39:1953–1962
  48. Monnet X, Letierce A, Hamzaoui O, Chemla D, Anguel N, Osman D, Richard C, Teboul JL (2011) Arterial pressure allows monitoring the changes in cardiac output induced by volume expansion but not by norepinephrine. Crit Care Med 39:1394–1399
  49. Monge Garcia MI, Saludes Orduna P, Cecconi M (2016) Understanding arterial load. Intensive Care Med 42:1625–1627
  50. Michard F, Boussat S, Chemla D, Anguel N, Mercat A, Lecarpentier Y, Richard C, Pinsky MR, Teboul JL (2000) Relation between respiratory changes in arterial pulse pressure and fluid responsiveness in septic patients with acute circulatory failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 162:134–138
  51. Yang X, Du B (2014) Does pulse pressure variation predict fluid responsiveness in critically ill patients? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care 18:650
  52. Michard F, Chemla D, Teboul JL (2015) Applicability of pulse pressure variation: how many shades of grey? Crit Care 19:144
  53. Monnet X, Teboul JL (2008) Passive leg raising. Intensive Care Med 34:659–663
  54. Monge Garcia MI, Guijo Gonzalez P, Gracia Romero M, Gil Cano A, Oscier C, Rhodes A, Grounds RM, Cecconi M (2015) Effects of fluid administration on arterial load in septic shock patients. Intensive Care Med 41:1247–1255
  55. Marik PE, Cavallazzi R (2013) Does the central venous pressure predict fluid responsiveness? An updated meta-analysis and a plea for some common sense. Crit Care Med 41:1774–1781
  56. Eskesen TG, Wetterslev M, Perner A (2016) Systematic review including re-analyses of 1148 individual data sets of central venous pressure as a predictor of fluid responsiveness. Intensive Care Med 42:324–332
  57. Garcia MIM, Oviedo AS (2017) Why should we continue measuring central venous pressure? Med Intensiva 41:483–486
  58. Machado FR, Cavalcanti AB, Bozza FA, Ferreira EM, Angotti Carrara FS, Sousa JL, Caixeta N, Salomao R, Angus DC, Pontes Azevedo LC, Latin American Sepsis Institute N (2017) The epidemiology of sepsis in Brazilian intensive care units (the Sepsis PREvalence Assessment Database, SPREAD): an observational study. Lancet Infect Dis 17:1180–1189
  59. Vincent JL, Weil MH (2006) Fluid challenge revisited. Crit Care Med 34:1333–1337
  60. Cecconi M, Parsons AK, Rhodes A (2011) What is a fluid challenge? Curr Opin Crit Care 17:290–295
  61. Weil MH, Henning RJ (1979) New concepts in the diagnosis and fluid treatment of circulatory shock. Thirteenth annual Becton, Dickinson and Company Oscar Schwidetsky Memorial Lecture. Anesth Analg 58:124–132
  62. Wan L, Bellomo R, May CN (2007) The effects of normal and hypertonic saline on regional blood flow and oxygen delivery. Anesth Analg 105:141–147
  63. Joannidis M, Druml W, Forni LG, Groeneveld ABJ, Honore PM, Hoste E, Ostermann M, Oudemans-van Straaten HM, Schetz M (2017) Prevention of acute kidney injury and protection of renal function in the intensive care unit: update 2017: expert opinion of the Working Group on Prevention, AKI section, European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. Intensive Care Med 43:730–749
  64. Prowle J, Bagshaw SM, Bellomo R (2012) Renal blood flow, fractional excretion of sodium and acute kidney injury: time for a new paradigm? Curr Opin Crit Care 18:585–592
  65. Lammi MR, Aiello B, Burg GT, Rehman T, Douglas IS, Wheeler AP, deBoisblanc BP, National Institutes of Health National Heart Lung and Blood Institute ARDS Network Investigators (2015) Response to fluid boluses in the fluid and catheter treatment trial. Chest 148:919–926
  66. Egal M, Erler NS, de Geus HR, van Bommel J, Groeneveld AB (2016) Targeting oliguria reversal in goal-directed hemodynamic management does not reduce renal dysfunction in perioperative and critically ill patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Anesth Analg 122:173–185
  67. Lima A, Jansen TC, van Bommel J, Ince C, Bakker J (2009) The prognostic value of the subjective assessment of peripheral perfusion in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 37:934–938
  68. Lima A, Bakker J (2015) Clinical assessment of peripheral circulation. Curr Opin Crit Care 21:226–231
  69. van Genderen ME, Engels N, van der Valk RJ, Lima A, Klijn E, Bakker J, van Bommel J (2015) Early peripheral perfusion-guided fluid therapy in patients with septic shock. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 191:477–480
  70. Bourcier S, Pichereau C, Boelle PY, Nemlaghi S, Dubee V, Lejour G, Baudel JL, Galbois A, Lavillegrand JR, Bige N, Tahiri J, Leblanc G, Maury E, Guidet B, Ait-Oufella H (2016) Toe-to-room temperature gradient correlates with tissue perfusion and predicts outcome in selected critically ill patients with severe infections. Ann Intensive Care 6:63
  71. Kaplan LJ, McPartland K, Santora TA, Trooskin SZ (2001) Start with a subjective assessment of skin temperature to identify hypoperfusion in intensive care unit patients. J Trauma 50:620–627 (discussion 627-628)
  72. Ait-Oufella H, Lemoinne S, Boelle PY, Galbois A, Baudel JL, Lemant J, Joffre J, Margetis D, Guidet B, Maury E, Offenstadt G (2011) Mottling score predicts survival in septic shock. Intensive Care Med 37:801–807
  73. Ait-Oufella H, Bige N, Boelle PY, Pichereau C, Alves M, Bertinchamp R, Baudel JL, Galbois A, Maury E, Guidet B (2014) Capillary refill time exploration during septic shock. Intensive Care Med 40:958–964
  74. Lara B, Enberg L, Ortega M, Leon P, Kripper C, Aguilera P, Kattan E, Castro R, Bakker J, Hernandez G (2017) Capillary refill time during fluid resuscitation in patients with sepsis-related hyperlactatemia at the emergency department is related to mortality. PLoS One 12:e0188548
  75. Hernandez G, Pedreros C, Veas E, Bruhn A, Romero C, Rovegno M, Neira R, Bravo S, Castro R, Kattan E, Ince C (2012) Evolution of peripheral vs metabolic perfusion parameters during septic shock resuscitation. A clinical-physiologic study. J Crit Care 27:283–288
  76. van Genderen ME, Paauwe J, de Jonge J, van der Valk RJ, Lima A, Bakker J, van Bommel J (2014) Clinical assessment of peripheral perfusion to predict postoperative complications after major abdominal surgery early: a prospective observational study in adults. Crit Care 18:R114
  77. Hernandez G, Cavalcanti AB, Ospina-Tascon G, Zampieri FG, Dubin A, Hurtado FJ, Friedman G, Castro R, Alegria L, Cecconi M, Teboul JL, Bakker J, Investigators A-SS (2018) Early goal-directed therapy using a physiological holistic view: the ANDROMEDA-SHOCK-a randomized controlled trial. Ann Intensive Care 8:52
  78. Silva E, De Backer D, Creteur J, Vincent JL (2004) Effects of fluid challenge on gastric mucosal PCO2 in septic patients. Intensive Care Med 30:423–429
  79. Ospina-Tascon G, Neves AP, Occhipinti G, Donadello K, Buchele G, Simion D, Chierego ML, Silva TO, Fonseca A, Vincent JL, De Backer D (2010) Effects of fluids on microvascular perfusion in patients with severe sepsis. Intensive Care Med 36:949–955
  80. Dellinger RP, Levy MM, Rhodes A, Annane D, Gerlach H, Opal SM, Sevransky JE, Sprung CL, Douglas IS, Jaeschke R, Osborn TM, Nunnally ME, Townsend SR, Reinhart K, Kleinpell RM, Angus DC, Deutschman CS, Machado FR, Rubenfeld GD, Webb S, Beale RJ, Vincent JL, Moreno R, Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including The Pediatric Subgroup (2013) Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012. Intensive Care Med 39:165–228
  81. Donati A, Carsetti A, Tondi S, Scorcella C, Domizi R, Damiani E, Gabbanelli V, Munch C, Adrario E, Pelaia P, Cecconi M (2014) Thermodilution vs pressure recording analytical method in hemodynamic stabilized patients. J Crit Care 29:260–264
  82. Rhodes A, Phillips G, Beale R, Cecconi M, Chiche JD, De Backer D, Divatia J, Du B, Evans L, Ferrer R, Girardis M, Koulenti D, Machado F, Simpson SQ, Tan CC, Wittebole X, Levy M (2015) The Surviving Sepsis Campaign bundles and outcome: results from the International Multicentre Prevalence Study on Sepsis (the IMPreSS study). Intensive Care Med 41:1620–1628
  83. Myburgh JA, Mythen MG (2013) Resuscitation fluids. N Engl J Med 369:1243–1251
  84. Cecconi M, Evans L, Levy M, Rhodes A (2018) Sepsis and septic shock. Lancet 392:75–87
  85. Perner A, Cecconi M, Cronhjort M, Darmon M, Jakob SM, Pettila V, van der Horst ICC (2018) Expert statement for the management of hypovolemia in sepsis. Intensive Care Med 44:791–798
  86. Andrews B, Semler MW, Muchemwa L, Kelly P, Lakhi S, Heimburger DC, Mabula C, Bwalya M, Bernard GR (2017) Effect of an early resuscitation protocol on in-hospital mortality among adults with sepsis and hypotension: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 318:1233–1240
  87. Aung NM, Kaung M, Kyi TT, Kyaw MP, Min M, Htet ZW, Anstey NM, Kyi MM, Hanson J (2015) The safety of a conservative fluid replacement strategy in adults hospitalised with malaria. PLoS One 10:e0143062
  88. Cecconi M, Aya HD, Geisen M, Ebm C, Fletcher N, Grounds RM, Rhodes A (2013) Changes in the mean systemic filling pressure during a fluid challenge in postsurgical intensive care patients. Intensive Care Med 39:1299–1305
  89. Aya HD, Ster IC, Fletcher N, Grounds RM, Rhodes A, Cecconi M (2016) Pharmacodynamic analysis of a fluid challenge. Crit Care Med 44:880–891
  90. Michard F, Teboul JL (2002) Predicting fluid responsiveness in ICU patients: a critical analysis of the evidence. Chest 121:2000–2008
  91. Hamilton MA, Cecconi M, Rhodes A (2011) A systematic review and meta-analysis on the use of preemptive hemodynamic intervention to improve postoperative outcomes in moderate and high-risk surgical patients. Anesth Analg 112:1392–1402
  92. Arulkumaran N, Corredor C, Hamilton MA, Ball J, Grounds RM, Rhodes A, Cecconi M (2014) Cardiac complications associated with goal-directed therapy in high-risk surgical patients: a meta-analysis. Br J Anaesth 112:648–659
  93. Marik PE, Monnet X, Teboul JL (2011) Hemodynamic parameters to guide fluid therapy. Ann Intensive Care 1:1
  94. Marik PE, Levitov A, Young A, Andrews L (2013) The use of bioreactance and carotid doppler to determine volume responsiveness and blood flow redistribution following passive leg raising in hemodynamically unstable patients. Chest 143:364–370
  95. Aya HD, Rhodes A, Ster IC, Fletcher N, Grounds RM, Cecconi M (2016) Hemodynamic effect of different doses of fluids for a fluid challenge: a quasi-randomized controlled study. Crit Care Med 45:e161–e168
  96. Myburgh JA, Finfer S, Bellomo R, Billot L, Cass A, Gattas D, Glass P, Lipman J, Liu B, McArthur C, McGuinness S, Rajbhandari D, Taylor CB, Webb SA, CHEST Investigators, Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Clinical Trials Group (2012) Hydroxyethyl starch or saline for fluid resuscitation in intensive care. N Engl J Med 367:1901–1911
  97. Perner A, Haase N, Guttormsen AB, Tenhunen J, Klemenzson G, Aneman A, Madsen KR, Moller MH, Elkjaer JM, Poulsen LM, Bendtsen A, Winding R, Steensen M, Berezowicz P, Soe-Jensen P, Bestle M, Strand K, Wiis J, White JO, Thornberg KJ, Quist L, Nielsen J, Andersen LH, Holst LB, Thormar K, Kjaeldgaard AL, Fabritius ML, Mondrup F, Pott FC, Moller TP, Winkel P, Wetterslev J, 6S Trial Group, Scandinavian Critical Care Trials Group (2012) Hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.42 versus Ringer’s acetate in severe sepsis. N Engl J Med 367:124–134
  98. Finfer S, Bellomo R, Boyce N, French J, Myburgh J, Norton R, SAFE Study Investigators (2004) A comparison of albumin and saline for fluid resuscitation in the intensive care unit. N Engl J Med 350:2247–2256
  99. Caironi P, Tognoni G, Masson S, Fumagalli R, Pesenti A, Romero M, Fanizza C, Caspani L, Faenza S, Grasselli G, Iapichino G, Antonelli M, Parrini V, Fiore G, Latini R, Gattinoni L, ALBIOS Study Investigators (2014) Albumin replacement in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. N Engl J Med 370:1412–1421
  100. Semler MW, Self WH, Rice TW (2018) Balanced crystalloids versus saline in critically ill adults. N Engl J Med 378:1951
  101. Self WH, Semler MW, Wanderer JP, Wang L, Byrne DW, Collins SP, Slovis CM, Lindsell CJ, Ehrenfeld JM, Siew ED, Shaw AD, Bernard GR, Rice TW, Investigators S-E (2018) Balanced crystalloids versus saline in noncritically ill adults. N Engl J Med 378:819–828
  102. Andrews B, Muchemwa L, Kelly P, Lakhi S, Heimburger DC, Bernard GR (2014) Simplified severe sepsis protocol: a randomized controlled trial of modified early goal-directed therapy in Zambia. Crit Care Med 42:2315–2324
  103. Hanson J, Lam SW, Alam S, Pattnaik R, Mahanta KC, Uddin Hasan M, Mohanty S, Mishra S, Cohen S, Day N, White N, Dondorp A (2013) The reliability of the physical examination to guide fluid therapy in adults with severe falciparum malaria: an observational study. Malar J 12:348

Sign In

Connect with ICM

Top 5 Articles Editors Picks Supplement