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Fat-free mass at admission predicts 28-day mortality in intensive care unit patients: the international prospective observational study Phase Angle Project

Ronan Thibault| Anne-Marie Makhlouf| Aurélien Mulliez| M. Cristina Gonzalez| Gintautas Kekstas| Nada Rotovnik Kozjek| Jean-Charles Preiser| Isabel Ceniceros Rozalen| Sylvain Dadet| Zeljko Krznaric| Kinga Kupczyk| Fabienne Tamion| Noël Cano| Claude Pichard
Original
Volume 42, Issue 9 / September , 2016

Pages 1445 - 1453

Abstract

Purpose

Phase angle as measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis reflects fat-free mass. Fat-free mass loss relates to worse prognosis in chronic diseases. Primary aim of this study was: to determine the association between fat-free mass at intensive care unit admission and 28-day mortality.

Methods

Ten centres in nine countries participated in this multicentre prospective observational study. The inclusion criteria were age >18 years; expected length of stay >48 h; absence of pacemaker, heart defibrillator implant, pregnancy and lactation. Fat-free mass was assessed by measurement of the 50-kHz phase angle at admission. The primary endpoint was 28-day mortality. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to assess prediction of 28-day mortality by fat-free mass at ICU admission. The variables associated with 28-day mortality were analysed by means of multivariable logistic regression.

Results

Of the 3605 patients screened, 931 were analysed: age 61 ± 16 years, male 60 %, APACHE II 19 ± 9, body mass index 26 ± 6, day 1 phase angle 4.5° ± 1.9°. Day 1 phase angle was lower in patients who eventually died than in survivors (4.1° ± 2.0° vs. 4.6° ± 1.8°, P = 0.001). The day 1 phase angle AUC for 28-day mortality was 0.63 [0.58–0.67]. In multivariable analysis, the following were independently associated with 28-day mortality: age (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.014 [95 % confidence interval 1.002–1.027], P = 0.03), day 1 phase angle (aOR 0.86 [0.78–0.96], P = 0.008), APACHE II (aOR 1.08 [1.06–1.11], P < 0.001), surgical patient (aOR 0.51 [0.33–0.79], P = 0.002), and admission for other diagnosis (aOR 0.39 [0.21–0.72], P = 0.003). A multivariable combined score improved the predictability of 28-day mortality: AUC = 0.79 [0.75–0.82].

Conclusion

Low fat-free mass at ICU admission is associated with 28-day mortality. A combined score improves mortality predictability.

Trial registration: NCT01907347 (

  • http://www.clinicaltrials.gov
  • ).

    Keywords

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