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Acute cor pulmonale during protective ventilation for acute respiratory distress syndrome: prevalence, predictors, and clinical impact

Armand Mekontso Dessap| Florence Boissier| Cyril Charron| Emmanuelle Bégot| Xavier Repessé| Annick Legras| Christian Brun-Buisson| Philippe Vignon| Antoine Vieillard-Baron
Seven-Day Profile Publication
Volume 42, Issue 5 / May , 2016

Pages 862 - 870

Abstract

Rationale

Increased right ventricle (RV) afterload during acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) may induce acute cor pulmonale (ACP).

Objectives

To determine the prevalence and prognosis of ACP and build a clinical risk score for the early detection of ACP.

Methods

This was a prospective study in which 752 patients with moderate-to-severe ARDS receiving protective ventilation were assessed using transesophageal echocardiography in 11 intensive care units. The study cohort was randomly split in a derivation (n = 502) and a validation (n = 250) cohort.

Measurements and main results

ACP was defined as septal dyskinesia with a dilated RV [end-diastolic RV/left ventricle (LV) area ratio >0.6 (≥1 for severe dilatation)]. ACP was found in 164 of the 752 patients (prevalence of 22 %; 95 % confidence interval 19–25 %). In the derivation cohort, the ACP risk score included four variables [pneumonia as a cause of ARDS, driving pressure ≥18 cm H2O, arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) ratio <150 mmHg, and arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure ≥48 mmHg]. The ACP risk score had a reasonable discrimination and a good calibration. Hospital mortality did not differ between patients with or without ACP, but it was significantly higher in patients with severe ACP than in the other patients [31/54 (57 %) vs. 291/698 (42 %); p = 0.03]. Independent risk factors for hospital mortality included severe ACP along with male gender, age, SAPS II, shock, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, respiratory rate, and driving pressure, while prone position was protective.

Conclusions

We report a 22 % prevalence of ACP and a poor outcome of severe ACP. We propose a simple clinical risk score for early identification of ACP that could trigger specific therapeutic strategies to reduce RV afterload.

Keywords

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