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Dexamethasone pretreatment for 24 h versus 6 h for prevention of postextubation airway obstruction in children: a randomized double-blind trial

Arun K. Baranwal| Jagdish P. Meena| Sunit C. Singhi| Jayashree Muralidharan
Pediatric Original
Volume 40, Issue 9 / September , 2014

Pages 1285 - 1294

Abstract

Purpose

Multidose steroid pretreatment is effective in preventing postextubation airway obstruction (PEAO) in adults, however controversy continues for children. This study was designed as a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to compare the effect of 24-h pretreatment with dexamethasone (24hPD) versus 6-h pretreatment (6hPD) on PEAO and reintubation in children at a tertiary care hospital in a developing economy.

Methods

Hundred twenty-four children (3 months to 12 years) intubated for ≥48 h and planned to have extubation during next 24 h were randomized to receive 24hPD (0.5 mg/kg/dose, q6h, total of six doses; n = 66) or 6hPD (total of three doses; n = 58). Patients with preexistent upper airway conditions, chronic respiratory diseases, steroid therapy in last 7 days, gastrointestinal bleeding, hypertension, and hyperglycemia and those likely to have poor airway reflexes were excluded.

Results

The two groups were similar at baseline. 24hPD reduced the incidence of PEAO (43/66 versus 48/58; p = 0.027) with absolute risk reduction of 17 %. It also reduced the incidence of reintubation, though nonsignificantly, by half [5/61 versus 9/58; relative risk (RR), 1.09; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.96–1.25]. Time to recovery from PEAO among non-reintubated patients was shorter among 24hPD patients (p = 0.016). No adverse event was noted with dexamethasone use. Intubation duration >7 days and cuffed tracheal tubes were found to be independent risk factors for PEAO (odds ratio 6 and 3.12, respectively).

Conclusions

24-h pretreatment with multidose dexamethasone reduced the incidence of PEAO and the time to recover from it. 24hPD should be considered for high-risk children intubated for >48 h in the study setting. Further studies with larger sample size from different socioeconomic background are desirable to validate these findings.

Keywords

References

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