Log in | Register

Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International Guidelines for Management of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock, 2012

R. P. Dellinger| Mitchell M. Levy| Andrew Rhodes| Djillali Annane| Herwig Gerlach| Steven M. Opal| Jonathan E. Sevransky| Charles L. Sprung| Ivor S. Douglas| Roman Jaeschke| Tiffany M. Osborn| Mark E. Nunnally| Sean R. Townsend| Konrad Reinhart| Ruth M. Kleinpell| Derek C. Angus| Clifford S. Deutschman| Flavia R. Machado| Gordon D. Rubenfeld| Steven Webb| Richard J. Beale| Jean-Louis Vincent| Rui
Guidelines
Volume 39, Issue 2 / February , 2013

Pages 165 - 228

Abstract

Objective

To provide an update to the “Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock,” last published in 2008.

Design

A consensus committee of 68 international experts representing 30 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings (for those committee members attending the conference). A formal conflict of interest policy was developed at the onset of the process and enforced throughout. The entire guidelines process was conducted independent of any industry funding. A stand-alone meeting was held for all subgroup heads, co- and vice-chairs, and selected individuals. Teleconferences and electronic-based discussion among subgroups and among the entire committee served as an integral part of the development.

Methods

The authors were advised to follow the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system to guide assessment of quality of evidence from high (A) to very low (D) and to determine the strength of recommendations as strong (1) or weak (2). The potential drawbacks of making strong recommendations in the presence of low-quality evidence were emphasized. Recommendations were classified into three groups: (1) those directly targeting severe sepsis; (2) those targeting general care of the critically ill patient and considered high priority in severe sepsis; and (3) pediatric considerations.

Results

Key recommendations and suggestions, listed by category, include: early quantitative resuscitation of the septic patient during the first 6 h after recognition (1C); blood cultures before antibiotic therapy (1C); imaging studies performed promptly to confirm a potential source of infection (UG); administration of broad-spectrum antimicrobials therapy within 1 h of the recognition of septic shock (1B) and severe sepsis without septic shock (1C) as the goal of therapy; reassessment of antimicrobial therapy daily for de-escalation, when appropriate (1B); infection source control with attention to the balance of risks and benefits of the chosen method within 12 h of diagnosis (1C); initial fluid resuscitation with crystalloid (1B) and consideration of the addition of albumin in patients who continue to require substantial amounts of crystalloid to maintain adequate mean arterial pressure (2C) and the avoidance of hetastarch formulations (1B); initial fluid challenge in patients with sepsis-induced tissue hypoperfusion and suspicion of hypovolemia to achieve a minimum of 30 mL/kg of crystalloids (more rapid administration and greater amounts of fluid may be needed in some patients (1C); fluid challenge technique continued as long as hemodynamic improvement is based on either dynamic or static variables (UG); norepinephrine as the first-choice vasopressor to maintain mean arterial pressure ≥65 mmHg (1B); epinephrine when an additional agent is needed to maintain adequate blood pressure (2B); vasopressin (0.03 U/min) can be added to norepinephrine to either raise mean arterial pressure to target or to decrease norepinephrine dose but should not be used as the initial vasopressor (UG); dopamine is not recommended except in highly selected circumstances (2C); dobutamine infusion administered or added to vasopressor in the presence of (a) myocardial dysfunction as suggested by elevated cardiac filling pressures and low cardiac output, or (b) ongoing signs of hypoperfusion despite achieving adequate intravascular volume and adequate mean arterial pressure (1C); avoiding use of intravenous hydrocortisone in adult septic shock patients if adequate fluid resuscitation and vasopressor therapy are able to restore hemodynamic stability (2C); hemoglobin target of 7–9 g/dL in the absence of tissue hypoperfusion, ischemic coronary artery disease, or acute hemorrhage (1B); low tidal volume (1A) and limitation of inspiratory plateau pressure (1B) for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); application of at least a minimal amount of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in ARDS (1B); higher rather than lower level of PEEP for patients with sepsis-induced moderate or severe ARDS (2C); recruitment maneuvers in sepsis patients with severe refractory hypoxemia due to ARDS (2C); prone positioning in sepsis-induced ARDS patients with a Pa2/Fi2 ratio of ≤100 mm Hg in facilities that have experience with such practices (2C); head-of-bed elevation in mechanically ventilated patients unless contraindicated (1B); a conservative fluid strategy for patients with established ARDS who do not have evidence of tissue hypoperfusion (1C); protocols for weaning and sedation (1A); minimizing use of either intermittent bolus sedation or continuous infusion sedation targeting specific titration endpoints (1B); avoidance of neuromuscular blockers if possible in the septic patient without ARDS (1C); a short course of neuromuscular blocker (no longer than 48 h) for patients with early ARDS and a Pa2/F2 <150 mm Hg (2C); a protocolized approach to blood glucose management commencing insulin dosing when two consecutive blood glucose levels are >180 mg/dL, targeting an upper blood glucose ≤180 mg/dL (1A); equivalency of continuous veno-venous hemofiltration or intermittent hemodialysis (2B); prophylaxis for deep vein thrombosis (1B); use of stress ulcer prophylaxis to prevent upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with bleeding risk factors (1B); oral or enteral (if necessary) feedings, as tolerated, rather than either complete fasting or provision of only intravenous glucose within the first 48 h after a diagnosis of severe sepsis/septic shock (2C); and addressing goals of care, including treatment plans and end-of-life planning (as appropriate) (1B), as early as feasible, but within 72 h of intensive care unit admission (2C). Recommendations specific to pediatric severe sepsis include: therapy with face mask oxygen, high flow nasal cannula oxygen, or nasopharyngeal continuous PEEP in the presence of respiratory distress and hypoxemia (2C), use of physical examination therapeutic endpoints such as capillary refill (2C); for septic shock associated with hypovolemia, the use of crystalloids or albumin to deliver a bolus of 20 mL/kg of crystalloids (or albumin equivalent) over 5–10 min (2C); more common use of inotropes and vasodilators for low cardiac output septic shock associated with elevated systemic vascular resistance (2C); and use of hydrocortisone only in children with suspected or proven “absolute”’ adrenal insufficiency (2C).

Conclusions

Strong agreement existed among a large cohort of international experts regarding many level 1 recommendations for the best care of patients with severe sepsis. Although a significant number of aspects of care have relatively weak support, evidence-based recommendations regarding the acute management of sepsis and septic shock are the foundation of improved outcomes for this important group of critically ill patients.

Keywords

References

  1. Angus DC, Linde-Zwirble WT, Lidicker J et al (2001) Epidemiology of severe sepsis in the United States: analysis of incidence, outcome, and associated costs of care. Crit Care Med 29:1303–1310
    • View reference on PubMed
  2. Dellinger RP (2003) Cardiovascular management of septic shock. Crit Care Med 31:946–955
    • View reference on PubMed
  3. Martin GS, Mannino DM, Eaton S et al (2003) The epidemiology of sepsis in the United States from 1979 through 2000. N Engl J Med 348:1546–1554
    • View reference on PubMed
  4. Linde-Zwirble WT, Angus DC (2004) Severe sepsis epidemiology: sampling, selection, and society. Crit Care 8:222–226
    • View reference on PubMed
  5. Dombrovskiy VY, Martin AA, Sunderram J et al (2007) Rapid increase in hospitalization and mortality rates for severe sepsis in the United States: a trend analysis from 1993 to 2003. Crit Care Med 35:1414–1415
  6. Levy MM, Fink MP, Marshall JC et al (2003) 2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS international sepsis definitions conference. Crit Care Med 31:1250–1256
    • View reference on PubMed
  7. Dellinger RP, Levy MM, Carlet JM et al (2008) International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock. Crit Care Med 36:296–327 (Erratum in: Crit Care Med 2008; 36:1394–1396 and Intensive Care Med 2008; 34:17–60)
    • View reference on PubMed
  8. Dellinger RP, Carlet JM, Masur H et al (2004) Surviving sepsis campaign guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock. Crit Care Med 32:858–873 and Intensive Care Med 30:536–555
  9. Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Vist GE et al (2008) GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ 336:924–926
    • View reference on PubMed
  10. Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Kunz R et al (2008) What is “quality of evidence” and why is it important to clinicians? BMJ 336:995–998
    • View reference on PubMed
  11. Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Kunz R et al (2008) Going from evidence to recommendations. BMJ 336:1049–1051
    • View reference on PubMed
  12. Brożek J, Oxman AD, Schünemann HJ (2012) GRADEpro (computer program) version 3.2 for windows. http://www.cc-ims.net/revman/gradepro
  13. Rivers E, Nguyen B, Havstad S et al (2001) Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock. N Engl J Med 345:1368–1377
    • View reference on PubMed
  14. Early Goal-Directed Therapy Collaborative Group of Zhejiang Province (2010) The effect of early goal-directed therapy on treatment of critical patients with severe sepsis/septic shock: a multi-center, prospective, randomized, controlled study (in Chinese). Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 6:331–334
  15. Levy MM, Dellinger RP, Townsend SR, Surviving Sepsis Campaign et al (2010) The Surviving Sepsis Campaign: results of an international guideline-based performance improvement program targeting severe sepsis. Crit Care Med 38:367–374
    • View reference on PubMed
  16. Bendjelid K, Romand JA (2003) Fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients: a review of indices used in intensive care. Intensive Care Med 29:352–360
    • View reference on PubMed
  17. Malbrain ML, Deeren D, De Potter TJ (2005) Intraabdominal hypertension in the critically ill: it is time to pay attention. Curr Opin Crit Care 11:156–171
    • View reference on PubMed
  18. Varpula M, Tallgren M, Saukkonen K et al (2005) Hemodynamic variables related to outcome in septic shock. Intensive Care Med 31:1066–1071
    • View reference on PubMed
  19. Kortgen A, Niederprum P, Bauer M (2006) Implementation of an evidence-based “standard operating procedure” and outcome in septic shock. Crit Care Med 34:943–949
    • View reference on PubMed
  20. Sebat F, Johnson D, Musthafa AA et al (2005) A multidisciplinary community hospital program for early and rapid resuscitation of shock in nontrauma patients. Chest 127:1729–1743
    • View reference on PubMed
  21. Shapiro NI, Howell MD, Talmor D et al (2006) Implementation and outcomes of the multiple urgent sepsis therapies (MUST) protocol. Crit Care Med 34:1025–1032
    • View reference on PubMed
  22. Micek SST, Roubinian N, Heuring T et al (2006) Before-after study of a standardized hospital order set for the management of septic shock. Crit Care Med 34:2707–2713
    • View reference on PubMed
  23. Nguyen HB, Corbett SW, Steele R et al (2007) Implementation of a bundle of quality indicators for the early management of severe sepsis and septic shock is associated with decreased mortality. Crit Care Med 35:1105–1112
    • View reference on PubMed
  24. Shorr AF, Micek ST, Jackson WL Jr et al (2007) Economic implications of an evidence-based sepsis protocol: can we improve outcomes and lower costs? Crit Care Med 35:1257–1262
    • View reference on PubMed
  25. Reinhart K, Kuhn HJ, Hartog C et al (2004) Continuous central venous and pulmonary artery oxygen saturation monitoring in the critically ill. Intensive Care Med 30:1572–1578
    • View reference on PubMed
  26. Trzeciak S, Dellinger RP, Abate N et al (2006) Translating research to clinical practice: a 1-year experience with implementing early goal-directed therapy for septic shock in the emergency department. Chest 129:225–232
    • View reference on PubMed
  27. Magder S (2006) Central venous pressure: a useful but not so simple measurement. Crit Care Med 34:2224–2227
    • View reference on PubMed
  28. Bendjelid K (2005) Right arterial pressure: determinant or result of change in venous return? Chest 128:3639–3640
    • View reference on PubMed
  29. Vincent JL, Weil MH (2006) Fluid challenge revisited. Crit Care Med 34:1333–1337
    • View reference on PubMed
  30. Trzeciak S, Dellinger RP, Parrillo JE et al (2007) Early microcirculatory perfusion derangements in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock: relationship to hemodynamics, oxygen transport, and survival. Ann Emerg Med 49:88–98
    • View reference on PubMed
  31. De Backer D, Creteur J, Dubois MJ et al (2006) The effects of dobutamine on microcirculatory alternations in patients with septic shock are independent of its systemic effects. Crit Care Med 34:403–408
    • View reference on PubMed
  32. Buwalda M, Ince C (2002) Opening the microcirculation: can vasodilators be useful in sepsis? Intensive Care Med 28:1208–1217
    • View reference on PubMed
  33. Boldt J (2002) Clinical review: hemodynamic monitoring in the intensive care unit. Crit Care 6:52–59
    • View reference on PubMed
  34. Pinsky MR, Payen D (2005) Functional hemodynamic monitoring. Crit Care 9:566–572
    • View reference on PubMed
  35. Jones AE, Shapiro NI, Trzeciak S, Emergency MEDICINE SHOCK RESEARCH NETWORk (EMShockNet) Investigators et al (2010) Lactate clearance vs central venous oxygen saturation as goals of early sepsis therapy: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 303:739–746
    • View reference on PubMed
  36. Jansen TC, van Bommel J, Schoonderbeek FJ et al (2010) Early lactate-guided therapy in intensive care unit patients: a multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 182:752–761
    • View reference on PubMed
  37. Cinel I, Dellinger RP (2006) Current treatment of severe sepsis. Curr Infect Dis Rep 8:358–365
    • View reference on PubMed
  38. Moore LJ, Jones SL, Kreiner LA et al (2009) Validation of a screening tool for the early identification of sepsis. J Trauma 66:1539–1546 (discussion 1546–1547)
  39. Subbe CP, Kruger M, Rutherford P et al (2001) Validation of a modified early warning score in medical admissions. Quart J Med 94:521–526
  40. Evaluation for Severe Sepsis Screening Tool, Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI). http://www.ihi.org/IHI/Topics/CriticalCare/Sepsis/Tools/EvaluationforSevereSepsisScreeningTool.htm
  41. Evaluation for severe sepsis screening tool (2012) http://www.survivingsepsis.org/files/Tools/evaluationforseveresepsisscreeningtool.pdf
  42. Rivers EP, Ahrens T (2008) Improving outcomes for severe sepsis and septic shock: tools for early identification of at-risk patients and treatment protocol implementation. Crit Care Clin 23:S1–S47
  43. Gao F, Melody T, Daniels DF et al (2005) The impact of compliance with 6-hour and 24-hour sepsis bundles on hospital mortality in patients with severe sepsis: a prospective observational study. Crit Care 9:R764–R770
    • View reference on PubMed
  44. Schorr C (2009) Performance improvement in the management of sepsis. Crit Care Clin 25:857–867
    • View reference on PubMed
  45. Girardis M, Rinaldi L, Donno L et al (2009) Sopravvivere alla Sepsi Group of the Modena-University Hospital: effects on management and outcome of severe sepsis and septic shock patients admitted to the intensive care unit after implementation of a sepsis program: a pilot study. Crit Care 13:R143
    • View reference on PubMed
  46. Pestaña D, Espinosa E, Sangüesa-Molina JR et al (2010) Compliance with a sepsis bundle and its effect on intensive care unit mortality in surgical septic shock patients. J Trauma 69:1282–1287
    • View reference on PubMed
  47. Berenholtz SM, Pronovost PJ, Ngo K et al (2007) Developing quality measures for sepsis care in the ICU. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Safety 33:559–568
  48. Black MD, Schorr C, Levy MM (2012) Knowledge translation and the multifaceted intervention in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med 40:1324–1328
    • View reference on PubMed
  49. Suarez A, Ferrer R, Artigas A et al (2011) Cost-effectiveness of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign protocol for severe sepsis: a prospective nationwide study in Spain. Intensive Care Med 37:444–452
    • View reference on PubMed
  50. Levy MM, Pronovost PJ, Dellinger RP et al (2004) Sepsis change bundles: converting guidelines into meaningful change in behavior and clinical outcome. Crit Care Med 32(Suppl):S595–S597
    • View reference on PubMed
  51. Weinstein MP, Reller LP, Murphy JR et al (1983) The clinical significance of positive blood cultures: a comprehensive analysis of 500 episodes of bacteremia and fungemia in adults. I. Laboratory and epidemiologic observations. Rev Infect Dis 5:35–53
    • View reference on PubMed
  52. Blot F, Schmidt E, Nitenberg G et al (1998) Earlier positivity of central venous versus peripheral blood cultures is highly predictive of catheter-related sepsis. J Clin Microbiol 36:105–109
    • View reference on PubMed
  53. Mermel LA, Maki DG (1993) Detection of bacteremia in adults: consequences of culturing an inadequate volume of blood. Ann Intern Med 119:270–272
    • View reference on PubMed
  54. (2005) Guidelines for the management of adults with hospital-acquired, ventilator-associated, and healthcare-associated pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 171:388–416
  55. Muscedere J, Dodek P, Keenan S et al (2008) Comprehensive evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for ventilator-associated pneumonia: diagnosis and treatment. J Crit Care 23:138–147
    • View reference on PubMed
  56. Giamarellos-Bourboulis EJ, Giannopoulou P, Grecka P et al (2004) Should procalcitonin be introduced in the diagnostic criteria for the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis? J Crit Care 19:152–157
    • View reference on PubMed
  57. Uzzan B, Cohen R, Nicolas P et al (2006) Procalcitonin as a diagnostic test for sepsis in critically ill adults after surgery or trauma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care Med 34:1996–2003
    • View reference on PubMed
  58. Tang BM, Eslick GD, Craig JC et al (2007) Accuracy of procalcitonin for sepsis diagnosis in critically ill patients: systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 7:210–217
    • View reference on PubMed
  59. Tenover FC (2007) Rapid detection and identification of bacterial pathogens using novel molecular technologies: infection control and beyond. Clin Infect Dis 44:418–423
    • View reference on PubMed
  60. Klouche M, Schroder U (2008) Rapid methods for diagnosis of bloodstream infections. Clin Chem Lab Med 46:888–908
    • View reference on PubMed
  61. Tissari P, Zumla A, Tarkka E et al (2010) Accurate and rapid identification of bacterial species from positive blood cultures with a DNA-based microarray platform: an observational study. Lancet 16(375):224–230
  62. Alam FF, Mustafa AS, Khan ZU (2007) Comparative evaluation of (1,3)-beta-d-glucan, mannan and anti-mannan antibodies, and Candida species-specific snPCR in patients with candidemia. BMC Infect Dis 7:103
    • View reference on PubMed
  63. Oliveri S, Trovato L, Betta P et al (2008) Experience with the Platelia Candida ELISA for the diagnosis of invasive candidosis in neonatal patients. Clin Microbiol Infect 14:391–393
    • View reference on PubMed
  64. Sendid B, Poirot JL, Tabouret M et al (2002) Combined detection of mannanaemia and antimannan antibodies as a strategy for the diagnosis of systemic infection caused by pathogenic Candida species. J Med Microbiol 51:433–442
    • View reference on PubMed
  65. Sendid B, Jouault T, Coudriau R et al (2004) Increased sensitivity of mannanemia detection tests by joint detection of alpha- and beta-linked oligomannosides during experimental and human systemic candidiasis. J Clin Microbiol 42:164–171
    • View reference on PubMed
  66. Sendid B, Dotan N, Nseir S et al (2008) Antibodies against glucan, chitin, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan as new biomarkers of Candida albicans infection that complement tests based on C. albicans mannan. Clin Vaccine Immunol 15:1868–1877
    • View reference on PubMed
  67. Yera H, Sendid B, Francois N et al (2001) Contribution of serological tests and blood culture to the early diagnosis of systemic candidiasis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 20:864–870
    • View reference on PubMed
  68. Kumar A, Roberts D, Wood KE et al (2006) Duration of hypotension prior to initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock. Crit Care Med 34:1589–1596
    • View reference on PubMed
  69. Morrell M, Fraser VJ, Kollef MH (2005) Delaying the empiric treatment of candida bloodstream infection until positive blood culture results are obtained: a potential risk factor for hospital mortality. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:3640–3645
    • View reference on PubMed
  70. Ferrer R, Artigas A, Suarez D et al (2009) Effectiveness of treatments for severe sepsis: a prospective, multicenter, observational study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 180:861–866
    • View reference on PubMed
  71. Barie PS, Hydo LJ, Shou J et al (2005) Influence of antibiotic therapy on mortality of critical illness caused or complicated by infection. Surg Infect 6:41–54
  72. Castellanos-Ortega A, Suberviola B, Garcia-Astudillo LA et al (2010) Impact of the surviving sepsis protocols on hospital length of stay and mortality in septic shock patients: results of a three-year follow-up quasi-experimental study. Crit Care Med 38:1036–1043
    • View reference on PubMed
  73. Puskarich MA, Trzeciak S, Shapiro MI et al (2011) Association between timing of antibiotic administration and mortality from septic shock inpatients treated with a quantitative resuscitation protocol. Crit Care Med 39:2066–2071
    • View reference on PubMed
  74. El Solh AA, Akinnusi ME, Alsawalha LN et al (2008) Outcome of septic shock in older adults after implementation of the sepsis “Bundle”. J Am Geriat Soc 56:272–278
    • View reference on PubMed
  75. Gurnani PK, Patel GP, Crank CW et al (2010) Impact of the implementation of a sepsis protocol for the management of fluid-refractory septic shock: a single-center, before-and-after study. Clin Therap 32:1285–1293
  76. Larsen GY, Mecham N, Greenberg R (2011) An emergency department septic shock protocol and care guideline for children initiated at triage. Pediatrics 127:e1585–e1592
    • View reference on PubMed
  77. Barochia AV, Cui X, Vitberg D et al (2010) Bundled care for septic shock: an analysis of clinical trials. Crit Care Med 38:668–678
    • View reference on PubMed
  78. Pappas PG, Kauffman CA, Andes D et al (2009) Clinical practice guidelines for the management of candidiasis: 2009 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 48:503–535
    • View reference on PubMed
  79. Leibovici L, Shraga I, Drucker M et al (1998) The benefit of appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment in patients with bloodstream infection. J Intern Med 244:379–386
    • View reference on PubMed
  80. Ibrahim EH, Sherman G, Ward S et al (2000) The influence of inadequate antimicrobial treatment of bloodstream infections on patient outcomes in the ICU setting. Chest 118:146–155
    • View reference on PubMed
  81. Ali MZ, Goetz MB (1997) A meta-analysis of the relative efficacy and toxicity of single daily dosing versus multiple daily dosing of aminoglycosides. Clin Infect Dis 24:796–809
    • View reference on PubMed
  82. Amsden GW, Ballow CH, Bertino JS (2010) Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of anti-infective agents. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R (eds) Principles and practice of infectious diseases, 7th edn. Churchill Livingstone, Philadelphia, pp 297–307
  83. Heyland DK, Reynolds S, Jiang X et al (2011) Procalcitonin for reduced antibiotic exposure in the critical care setting: a systematic review and an economic evaluation. Crit Care Med 39:1792–1799
    • View reference on PubMed
  84. Jensen JU, Hein L, Lundgren B et al (2011) Procalcitonin-guided interventions against infections to increase early appropriate antibiotics and improve survival in the intensive care unit: a randomized trial. Crit Care Med 39:2048–2058
    • View reference on PubMed
  85. Brunkhorst FM, Oppert M, Marx G et al (2012) Effect of empirical treatment with moxifloxacin and meropenem vs meropenem on sepsis-related organ dysfunction in patients with severe sepsis. JAMA 307:2390–2399
    • View reference on PubMed
  86. Kumar A, Safdar N, Kethireddy S et al (2010) A survival benefit of combination antibiotic therapy for serious infections associated with sepsis and septic shock is contingent only of death: a meta-analytic/meta-regression study. Crit Care Med 38:1651–1664
    • View reference on PubMed
  87. Kumar A, Zarychanski R, Light B et al (2010) Early combination antibiotic therapy yields improved survival compared with monotherapy: a propensity-matched analysis. Crit Care Med 38:1773–1785
    • View reference on PubMed
  88. Micek ST, Welch EC, Khan J et al (2010) Empiric combination antimicrobial therapy is associated with improved outcome against sepsis due to gram-negative bacteria: a retrospective analysis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:1742–1748
    • View reference on PubMed
  89. Al-Hassan MN, Wilson JW, Lahr BD et al (2009) Beta-lactam and fluoroquinolone combination antibiotic therapy for bacteremia caused by gram-negative bacilli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:1386–1394
  90. Klastersky J (2004) Management of fever in neutropenic patients with different risks of complications. Clin Infect Dis 39(Suppl 1):S32–S37
    • View reference on PubMed
  91. Martin-Loeches I, Lisboa T, Rodriguez A et al (2010) Combination antibiotic therapy with macrolides improves survival in intubated patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Intensive Care Med 36:612–620
    • View reference on PubMed
  92. Rodriguez A, Mendia A, Sirvent JM et al (2007) Combination antibiotic therapy improves survival in patients with community-acquired pneumonia and shock. Crit Care Med 35:1493–1498
    • View reference on PubMed
  93. Baddour LM, Yu VL, Klugman KP et al (2004) Combination antibiotic therapy lowers mortality among severely ill patients with pneumococcal bacteremia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 170:440–444
    • View reference on PubMed
  94. Safdar N, Handelsman J, Maki DG (2004) Does combination antimicrobial therapy reduce mortality in Gram-negative bacteraemia? A meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 4:519–527
    • View reference on PubMed
  95. Paul M, Silbiger I, Grozinsky S et al (2006) Beta lactam antibiotic monotherapy versus beta lactam aminoglycoside antibiotic combination therapy for sepsis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1):CD003344
  96. Garnacho-Montero J, Sa-Borges M, Sole-Violan J et al (2007) Optimal management therapy for Pseudomonas aeruginosa ventilator associated pneumonia: an observational, multicenter study comparing monotherapy with combination antibiotic therapy. Crit Care Med 35:1888–1895
    • View reference on PubMed
  97. Jain S, Kamimoto L, Bramley AM et al (2009) Hospitalized patients with 2009 H1N1 influenza in the United States, April–June 2009. N Engl J Med 361:1935–1944
    • View reference on PubMed
  98. Writing Committee of the WHO Consultation on Clinical Aspects of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza, Bautista E, Chotpitayasunondh T et al (2009) Clinical aspects of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. N Engl J Med 2010(362):1708–1719
  99. Smith JR, Ariano RE, Toovey S (2010) The use of antiviral agents for the management of severe influenza. Crit Care Med 38(Suppl 4):e43–e51
    • View reference on PubMed
  100. Fiore AE, Fry A, Shay D et al (2011) Antiviral agents for the treatment and chemoprophylaxis of influenza: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep 60:1–24
    • View reference on PubMed
  101. Kalil A (2008) A silent killer: cytomegalovirus infection in the non-immunocompromised critically ill patient. Crit Care Med 36:3261–3264
    • View reference on PubMed
  102. Ziemann M, Sedemund-Adib B, Reibland P et al (2008) Increased mortality in long-term intensive care patients with active cytomegalovirus infection. Crit Care Med 36:3145–3150
    • View reference on PubMed
  103. Hotchkiss RS, Opal SM (2010) Immunotherapy for sepsis: a new approach against an ancient foe. N Engl J Med 363:87–89
    • View reference on PubMed
  104. Miller GG, Dummer JS (2007) Herpes simplex and varicella zoster viruses: forgotten but not gone. Am J Transpl 7:741–747
  105. Jimenez MF, Marshall JC (2001) Source control in the management of sepsis. Intensive Care Med 27:S49–S62
    • View reference on PubMed
  106. Moss RL, Musemeche CA, Kosloske AM (1996) Necrotizing fascitis in children: prompt recognition and aggressive therapy improve survival. J Pediatr Surg 31:1142–1146
    • View reference on PubMed
  107. Boyer A, Vargas F, Coste F et al (2009) Influence of surgical treatment on mortality from necrotizing soft tissue infections requiring intensive care management. Intensive Care Med 35:847–853
    • View reference on PubMed
  108. Bufalari A, Giustozzi G, Moggi L (1996) Postoperative intraabdominal abscesses: percutaneous versus surgical treatment. Acta Chir Belg 96:197–200
    • View reference on PubMed
  109. O’Grady NP, Alexander M, Dellinger EP et al (2002) Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. MMWR Recomm Rep 51:1–29
    • View reference on PubMed
  110. O’Grady NP, Alexander M, Dellinger EP et al (2002) Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. Clin Infect Dis 35:1281–1307
  111. Mier J, Leon EL, Castillo A et al (1997) Early versus late necrosectomy in severe necrotizing pancreatitis. Am J Surg 173:71–75
    • View reference on PubMed
  112. van Santvoort HC, Besselink MG, Bakker OJ et al (2010) A step-up approach or open necrosectomy for necrotizing pancreatitis. N Engl J Med 362:1491–1502
    • View reference on PubMed
  113. Evans A, Winslow BH (1995) Oxygen saturation and hemodynamic response in critically ill mechanically ventilated adults during intra hospital transport. Am J Crit Care 4:106–111
    • View reference on PubMed
  114. Aitken LM, Williams G, Harvey M et al (2011) Nursing considerations to complement the Surviving Sepsis Campaign. Crit Care Med 39:1800–1818
    • View reference on PubMed
  115. Liberati A, D’Amico R, Pifferi S et al (2010) Antibiotic prophylaxis to reduce respiratory tract infections and mortality in adults receiving intensive care. Cochrane Collab 9:1–72
  116. de Jonge E, Schultz MJ, Spanjaard L et al (2003) Effects of selective decontamination of the digestive tract on mortality and acquisition of resistance bacteria on intensive care: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 362:1011–1016
    • View reference on PubMed
  117. de Smet AMGA, Kluytmans JAJM, Cooper BS et al (2009) Decontamination of the digestive tract and oropharynx in ICU patients. N Engl J Med 360:20–31
    • View reference on PubMed
  118. Cuthbertson BH, Francis J, Campbell MK et al (2010) A study of the perceived risks, benefits and barriers to the use of SDD in adult critical care units (SuDDICU study). Trials 11:117
    • View reference on PubMed
  119. de Smet AMGA, Kluytmans JAJM, Blok HEM et al (2011) Selective digestive tract decontamination and selective oropharyngeal decontamination and antibiotic resistance in patients in the intensive care unit: an open label, cluster grouped, randomized cross over study. Lancet Infect Dis 11:372–380
    • View reference on PubMed
  120. Oostdijk EAN, de Smet AMGA, Blok HEM et al (2010) Ecological effects of selective decontamination on resistant gram-negative bacterial colonization. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 181:452–457
    • View reference on PubMed
  121. Ochoa-Ardila ME, García-Cañas A, Gómez-Mediavilla K et al (2011) Long-term use of selective decontamination of the digestive tract does not increase antibiotic resistance: a 5-year prospective cohort study. Intensive Care Med 37:1458–1465
    • View reference on PubMed
  122. Guidet B, Martinet O, Boulain T et al (2012) Assessment of hemodynamic efficacy and safety of 6% hydroxyethylstarch 130/0.4 vs 0.9% NaCl fluid replacement in patients with severe sepsis: the CRYSTMAS study. Crit Care 16:R94
    • View reference on PubMed
  123. Perner A, Haase N, Guttormsen AB et al (2012) Hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.42 versus Ringer’s acetate in severe sepsis. N Engl J Med 367:124–134
    • View reference on PubMed
  124. Myburgh JA, Finfer S, Bellomo R et al (2012) Hydroxyethyl starch or saline for fluid resuscitation in intensive care. N Engl J Med. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1209759
  125. Perel P, Roberts I (2011) Colloids versus crystalloids for fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3):CD000567 (Review)
  126. Schortgen F, Lacherade JC, Bruneel F et al (2001) Effects of hydroxyethyl starch and gelatin on renal function in severe sepsis: a multicentre randomised study. Lancet 357:911–916
    • View reference on PubMed
  127. McIntyre LA, Fergusson D, Cook DJ et al (2008) Fluid resuscitation in the management of early septic shock (FINESS): a randomized controlled feasibility trial. Can J Anaesth 55:819–826
    • View reference on PubMed
  128. Brunkhorst FM, Engel C, Bloos F et al (2008) Intensive insulin therapy and pentastarch resuscitation in severe sepsis. N Engl J Med 358:125–139
    • View reference on PubMed
  129. Finfer S, Bellomo R, Boyce N et al (2004) A comparison of albumin and saline for fluid resuscitation in the intensive care unit. N Engl J Med 350:2247–2256
    • View reference on PubMed
  130. Delaney AP, Dan A, McCaffrey J et al (2011) The role of albumin as a resuscitation fluid for patients with sepsis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care Med 39:386–391
    • View reference on PubMed
  131. Marik PE, Teboul JL (2011) Hemodynamic parameters to guide fluid therapy. Ann Intensive Care 1:1
    • View reference on PubMed
  132. Marik PE, Cavallazzi R, Vasu T et al (2009) Dynamic changes in arterial waveform derived variables and fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients: a systematic review of the literature. Crit Care Med 37:2642–2647
    • View reference on PubMed
  133. Hollenberg SM, Ahrens TS, Annane D et al (2004) Practice parameters for hemodynamic support of sepsis in adult patients: 2004 update. Crit Care Med 32:1928–1948
    • View reference on PubMed
  134. LeDoux D, Astiz ME, Carpati CM et al (2000) Effects of perfusion pressure on tissue perfusion in septic shock. Crit Care Med 28:2729–2732
    • View reference on PubMed
  135. Martin C, Papazian L, Perrin G et al (1993) Norepinephrine or dopamine for the treatment of hyperdynamic septic shock? Chest 103:1826–1831
    • View reference on PubMed
  136. Martin C, Viviand X, Leone M et al (2000) Effect of norepinephrine on the outcome of septic shock. Crit Care Med 28:2758–2765
    • View reference on PubMed
  137. De Backer D, Creteur J, Silva E et al (2003) Effects of dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine on the splanchnic circulation in septic shock: which is best? Crit Care Med 31:1659–1667
    • View reference on PubMed
  138. Day NP, Phu NH, Bethell DP et al (1996) The effects of dopamine and adrenaline infusions on acid-base balance and systemic haemodynamics in severe infection. Lancet 348:219–223
    • View reference on PubMed
  139. Le Tulzo Y, Seguin P, Gacouin A et al (1997) Effects of epinephrine on right ventricular function in patients with severe septic shock and right ventricular failure: a preliminary descriptive study. Intensive Care Med 23:664–670
    • View reference on PubMed
  140. Bollaert PE, Bauer P, Audibert G et al (1990) Effects of epinephrine on hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in dopamine-resistant septic shock. Chest 98:949–953
    • View reference on PubMed
  141. Zhou SX, Qiu HB, Huang YZ et al (2002) Effects of norepinephrine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine-dobutamine on systemic and gastric mucosal oxygenation in septic shock. Acta Pharm Sin 23:654–658
  142. Levy B, Bollaert PE, Charpentier C et al (1997) Comparison of norepinephrine and dobutamine to epinephrine for hemodynamics, lactate metabolism, and gastric tonometric variables in septic shock: a prospective, randomized study. Intensive Care Med 23:282–287
    • View reference on PubMed
  143. Mackenzie SJ, Kapadia F, Nimmo GR et al (1991) Adrenaline in treatment of septic shock: effects on haemodynamics and oxygen transport. Intensive Care Med 17:36–39
    • View reference on PubMed
  144. Moran JL, O’Fathartaigh MS, Peisach AR et al (1993) Epinephrine as an inotropic agent in septic shock: a dose-profile analysis. Crit Care Med 21:70–77
    • View reference on PubMed
  145. Yamazaki T, Shimada Y, Taenaka N et al (1982) Circulatory responses to after loading with phenylephrine in hyperdynamic sepsis. Crit Care Med 10:432–435
    • View reference on PubMed
  146. Gregory JS, Bonfiglio MF, Dasta JF et al (1991) Experience with phenylephrine as a component of the pharmacologic support of septic shock. Crit Care Med 19:1395–1400
    • View reference on PubMed
  147. Annane D, Vignon P, Renault A, For the CATS Study Group et al (2007) Norepinephrine plus dobutamine versus epinephrine alone for management of septic shock: a randomized trial. Lancet 370:676–684
    • View reference on PubMed
  148. Regnier B, Rapin M, Gory G et al (1977) Haemodynamic effects of dopamine in septic shock. Intensive Care Med 3:47–53
    • View reference on PubMed
  149. Ruokonen E, Takala J, Kari A et al (1993) Regional blood flow and oxygen transport in septic shock. Crit Care Med 21:1296–1303
    • View reference on PubMed
  150. Marik PE, Mohedin M (1994) The contrasting effects of dopamine and norepinephrine on systemic and splanchnic oxygen utilization in hyperdynamic sepsis. JAMA 272:1354–1357
    • View reference on PubMed
  151. Patel GP, Grahe JS, Sperry M et al (2010) Efficacy and safety of dopamine versus norepinephrine in the management of septic shock. Shock 33:375–380
    • View reference on PubMed
  152. De Backer D, Biston P, Devriendt J et al (2010) Comparison of dopamine and norepinephrine in the treatment of shock. N Engl J Med 362:779–789
    • View reference on PubMed
  153. De Backer D, Aldecoa C, Njimi H et al (2012) Dopamine versus norepinephrine in the treatment of septic shock: a meta-analysis. Crit Care 40:725–730
  154. Seguin P, Bellissant E, Le-Tulzo Y et al (2002) Effects of epinephrine compared with the combination of dobutamine and norepinephrine on gastric perfusion in septic shock. Clin Pharmacol Ther 71:381–388
    • View reference on PubMed
  155. Myburgh JA, Higgins A, Jovanovska A et al (2008) A comparison of epinephrine and norepinephrine in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med 34:2226–2234
    • View reference on PubMed
  156. Morelli A, Ertmer C, Rehberg S et al (2008) Phenylephrine versus norepinephrine for initial hemodynamic support of patients with septic shock: a randomized, controlled trial. Crit Care 12:R143
    • View reference on PubMed
  157. Landry DW, Levin HR, Gallant EM et al (1997) Vasopressin deficiency contributes to the vasodilation of septic shock. Circulation 95:1122–1125
    • View reference on PubMed
  158. Patel BM, Chittock DR, Russell JA et al (2002) Beneficial effects of short-term vasopressin infusion during severe septic shock. Anesthesiology 96:576–582
    • View reference on PubMed
  159. Dünser MW, Mayr AJ, Ulmer H et al (2003) Arginine vasopressin in advanced vasodilatory shock: a prospective, randomized, controlled study. Circulation 107:2313–2319
    • View reference on PubMed
  160. Holmes CL, Patel BM, Russell JA et al (2001) Physiology of vasopressin relevant to management of septic shock. Chest 120:989–1002
    • View reference on PubMed
  161. Malay MB, Ashton RC, Landry DW et al (1999) Low-dose vasopressin in the treatment of vasodilatory septic shock. J Trauma 47:699–705
    • View reference on PubMed
  162. Holmes CL, Walley KR, Chittock DR et al (2001) The effects of vasopressin on hemodynamics and renal function in severe septic shock: a case series. Intensive Care Med 27:1416–1421
    • View reference on PubMed
  163. Lauzier F, Levy B, Lamarre P et al (2006) Vasopressin or norepinephrine in early hyperdynamic septic shock: a randomized clinical trial. Intensive Care Med 32:1782–1789
    • View reference on PubMed
  164. O’Brien A, Calpp L, Singer M (2002) Terlipressin for norepinephrine-resistant septic shock. Lancet 359:1209–1210
    • View reference on PubMed
  165. Sharshar T, Blanchard A, Paillard M et al (2003) Circulating vasopressin levels in septic shock. Crit Care Med 31:1752–1758
    • View reference on PubMed
  166. Russell JA, Walley KR, Singer J et al (2008) Vasopressin versus norepinephrine infusion in patients with septic shock. N Engl J Med 358:877–887
    • View reference on PubMed
  167. Dünser MW, Mayr AJ, Tura A et al (2003) Ischemic skin lesions as a complication of continuous vasopressin infusion in catecholamine-resistant vasodilatory shock: incidence and risk factors. Crit Care Med 31:1394–1398
    • View reference on PubMed
  168. Albanèse J, Leone M, Delmas A et al (2005) Terlipressin or norepinephrine in hyperdynamic septic shock: a prospective, randomized study. Crit Care Med 33:1897–1902
    • View reference on PubMed
  169. Morelli A, Ertmer C, Lange M et al (2008) Effects of short-term simultaneous infusion of dobutamine and terlipressin in patients with septic shock: the DOBUPRESS study. Br J Anesth 100:494–503
  170. Morelli A, Ertmer C, Rehberg S et al (2009) Continuous terlipressin versus vasopressin infusion in septic shock (TERLIVAP): a randomized, controlled pilot study. Crit Care 13:R130
    • View reference on PubMed
  171. Bellomo R, Chapman M, Finfer S et al (2000) Low-dose dopamine in patients with early renal dysfunction: a placebo-controlled randomised trial. Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS) Clinical Trials Group. Lancet 356:2139–2143
    • View reference on PubMed
  172. Kellum J, Decker J (2001) Use of dopamine in acute renal failure: a meta-analysis. Crit Care Med 29:1526–1531
    • View reference on PubMed
  173. Gattinoni L, Brazzi L, Pelosi P et al (1995) A trial of goal-oriented hemodynamic therapy in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med 333:1025–1032
    • View reference on PubMed
  174. Hayes MA, Timmins AC, Yau EHS et al (1994) Elevation of systemic oxygen delivery in the treatment of critically ill patients. N Engl J Med 330:1717–1722
    • View reference on PubMed
  175. Annane D, Sebille V, Charpentier C et al (2002) Effect of treatment with low doses of hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone on mortality in patients with septic shock. JAMA 288:862–871
    • View reference on PubMed
  176. Briegel J, Forst H, Haller M et al (1999) Stress doses of hydrocortisone reverse hyperdynamic septic shock: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, single-center study. Crit Care Med 27:723–732
    • View reference on PubMed
  177. Bollaert PE, Charpentier C, Levy B et al (1998) Reversal of late septic shock with supraphysiologic doses of hydrocortisone. Crit Care Med 26:645–650
    • View reference on PubMed
  178. Sprung CL, Annane D, Keh D et al (2008) Hydrocortisone therapy for patients with septic shock. N Engl J Med 358:111–124
    • View reference on PubMed
  179. Annane D, Bellissant E, Bollaert PE et al (2009) Corticosteroids in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock in adults: a systematic review. JAMA 301:2362–2375
    • View reference on PubMed
  180. Sligl WI, Milner DA Jr, Sundar S et al (2009) Safety and efficacy of corticosteroids for the treatment of septic shock: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis 49:93–101
    • View reference on PubMed
  181. Patel GP, Balk RA (2012) Systemic steroids in severe sepsis and septic shock. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 185:133–139
    • View reference on PubMed
  182. Oppert M, Schindler R, Husung C et al (2005) Low dose hydrocortisone improves shock reversal and reduces cytokine levels in early hyperdynamic septic shock. Crit Care Med 33:2457–2464
    • View reference on PubMed
  183. Yildiz O, Doganay M, Aygen B et al (2002) Physiologic-dose steroid therapy in sepsis. Crit Care 6:251–259
    • View reference on PubMed
  184. Briegel J, Möhnle P, Sprung CL et al (2009) Multicenter comparison of cortisol as measured by different methods in samples of patients with septic shock. Intensive Care Med 35:2151–2156
    • View reference on PubMed
  185. Allolio B, Dorr H, Stuttmann R et al (1985) Effect of a single bolus of etomidate upon eight major corticosteroid hormone and plasma ACTH. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 22:281–286
  186. Jabre P, Combes X, Lapostolle F et al (2009) Etomidate versus ketamine for rapid sequence intubation in acutely ill patients: a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet 374:293–300
    • View reference on PubMed
  187. Cuthbertson BH, Sprung CL, Annane D et al (2009) The effects of etomidate on adrenal responsiveness and mortality in patients with septic shock. Intensive Care Med 35:1868–1876
    • View reference on PubMed
  188. Keh D, Boehnke T, Weber-Carstens S et al (2003) Immunologic and hemodynamic effects of “low-dose” hydrocortisone in septic shock: a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, crossover study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 167:512–520
    • View reference on PubMed
  189. Huh JW, Choi HS, Lim CM et al (2011) Low-dose hydrocortisone treatment for patients with septic shock: a pilot study comparing 3 days with 7 days. Respirology 16:1088–1095
    • View reference on PubMed
  190. Confalonieri M, Urbino R, Potena A et al (2005) Hydrocortisone infusion for severe community-acquired pneumonia: a preliminary randomized study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 171:242–248
    • View reference on PubMed
  191. Meijvis SCA, Hardemann H, Remmelts HHF et al (2011) Dexamethasone and length of hospital stay in patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 377:2023–2030
    • View reference on PubMed
  192. Weber-Carstens S, Deja M, Bercker S et al (2007) Impact of bolus application of low-dose hydrocortisone on glycemic control in septic shock patients. Intensive Care Med 33:730–733
    • View reference on PubMed
  193. Hébert PC, Wells G, Blajchman MA et al (1999) A multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial of transfusion in critical care. N Engl J Med 340:409–417
    • View reference on PubMed
  194. Hajjar LA, Vincent JL, Galas FRBG et al (2010) Transfusion requirements after cardiac surgery: the TRACS randomized controlled trial. JAMA 304:1559–1567
    • View reference on PubMed
  195. Marik PE, Sibbald WJ (1993) Effect of stored-blood transfusion on oxygen delivery in patients with sepsis. JAMA 269:3024–3029
    • View reference on PubMed
  196. Lorente JA, Landín L, dePablo R et al (1993) Effects of blood transfusion on oxygen transport variables in severe sepsis. Crit Care Med 21:1312–1318
    • View reference on PubMed
  197. Fernandes CJ, Akamine N, DeMarco FVC et al (2001) Red blood cell transfusion does not increase oxygen consumption in critically ill septic patients. Crit Care 5:362–567
    • View reference on PubMed
  198. Corwin HL, Gettinger A, Rodriguez RM et al (1999) Efficacy of recombinant human erythropoietin in the critically ill patient: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Crit Care Med 27:2346–2350
    • View reference on PubMed
  199. Corwin HL, Gettinger A, Pearl RG et al (2002) Efficacy of recombinant human erythropoietin in critically ill patients. JAMA 28:2827–2835
  200. College of American Pathologists (1994) Practice parameter for the use of fresh-frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate, and platelets. JAMA 271:777–781
  201. Canadian Medical Association Expert Working Group (1997) Guidelines for red blood cell and plasma transfusion for adults and children. Can Med Assoc J 156:S1–S24
  202. American Society of Anaesthesiologists Task Force on Blood Component Therapy (1996) Practice guidelines for blood component therapy. Anesthesiology 84:732–747
  203. Liumbruno GL, Bennardello F, Lattanzio A et al (2009) Recommendations for the transfusion of plasma and platelets. Blood Transfus 7:132–150
    • View reference on PubMed
  204. Abdel-Wahab OI, Healy B, Dzik WH (2006) Effect of fresh-frozen plasma transfusion on prothrombin time and bleeding in patients with mild coagulation abnormalities. Transfusion 46:1279–1285
    • View reference on PubMed
  205. Stanworth SJ, Walsh TS, Prescott RJ et al (2011) A national study of plasma use in critical care: clinical indications, dose, and effect on prothrombin time. Crit Care 15:R108
    • View reference on PubMed
  206. Warren BL, Eid A, Singer P et al (2001) High-dose antithrombin III in severe sepsis: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 286:1869–1878
    • View reference on PubMed
  207. Wiedermann CJ, Hoffmann JN, Juers M et al (2006) High-dose antithrombin III in the treatment of severe sepsis in patients with a high risk of death: efficacy and safety. Crit Care Med 34:285–292
    • View reference on PubMed
  208. Schiffer CA, Anderson KC, Bennett CL et al (2001) Platelet transfusion for patients with cancer: clinical practice guidelines of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. J Clin Oncol 19:1519–1538
    • View reference on PubMed
  209. (2003) Guidelines for the use of platelet transfusions. Br J Haematol 122:10–23
  210. Werdan K, Pilz G, Bujdoso O et al (2007) Score-based immunoglobulin G therapy of patients with sepsis: the SBITS study. Crit Care Med 35:2693–2701
    • View reference on PubMed
  211. INIS Collaborative Group, Brocklehurst P, Farrell B et al (2011) Treatment of neonatal sepsis with intravenous immune globulin. N Engl J Med 365:1201–1211
    • View reference on PubMed
  212. Alejandria MM, Lansang MAD, Dans LF et al (2002) Intravenous immunoglobulin for treating sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1):CD001090
  213. Burns ER, Lee V, Rubinstein A (1991) Treatment of septic thrombocytemia with immune globulin. J Clin Immunol 11:363–368
    • View reference on PubMed
  214. Darenberg J, Ihendyane N, Sjölin J et al (2003) Intravenous immunoglobulin G therapy in streptococcal toxic shock syndrome: a European randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis 37:333–340
    • View reference on PubMed
  215. Hentrich M, Fehnle K, Ostermann H et al (2006) IgMA-enriched immunoglobulin in neutropenic patients with sepsis syndrome and septic shock: a randomized, controlled, multiple-center trial. Crit Care Med 34:1319–1325
    • View reference on PubMed
  216. Rodriguez A, Rello J, Neira J et al (2005) Effects of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin and antibiotics on survival for severe sepsis undergoing surgery. Shock 23:298–304
    • View reference on PubMed
  217. Pildal J, Gøtzsche PC (2004) Polyclonal immunoglobulin for treatment of bacterial sepsis: a systematic review. Clin Infect Dis 39:38–46
    • View reference on PubMed
  218. Laupland KB, Kirkpatrick AW, Delaney A (2007) Polyclonal intravenous immunoglobulin for the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock in critically ill adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care Med 35:2686–2692
    • View reference on PubMed
  219. Kreymann KG, de Heer G, Nierhaus A (2007) Use of polyclonal immunoglobulins as adjunctive therapy for sepsis or septic shock. Crit Care Med 35:2677–2685
    • View reference on PubMed
  220. Turgeon AF, Hutton B, Fergusson DA et al (2007) Meta-analysis: intravenous immunoglobulin in critically ill adult patients with sepsis. Ann Intern Med 146:193–203
    • View reference on PubMed
  221. Angstwurm MW, Engelmann L, Zimmermann T et al (2007) Selenium in intensive care (SIC): results of a prospective randomized, placebo-controlled, multiple-center study in patients with severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis, and septic shock. Crit Care Med 35:118–126
    • View reference on PubMed
  222. Forceville X, Laviolle B, Annane D et al (2007) Effects of high doses of selenium, a sodium selenite, in septic shock: a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, phase II study. Crit Care 11:R73
    • View reference on PubMed
  223. Manzanares W, Biestro A, Torre MH et al (2011) High-dose selenium reduces ventilator-associated pneumonia and illness severity in critically ill patients with systemic inflammation. Intensive Care Med 37:1120–1127
    • View reference on PubMed
  224. Berger MM, Eggimann P, Heyland DK et al (2006) Reduction of nosocomial pneumonia after major burns by trace element supplementation: aggregation of two randomized trials. Crit Care 10:R153
    • View reference on PubMed
  225. Mishra V, Baines M, Perry SE et al (2007) Effect of selenium supplementation on biochemical markers and outcome in critically ill patients. Clin Nutr 26:41–50
    • View reference on PubMed
  226. Andrews PJ, Avenell A, Noble DW et al (2011) Randomised trial of glutamine, selenium, or both, to supplemental parenteral nutrition for critically ill patients. BMJ 342:d1542
    • View reference on PubMed
  227. Wang Z, Forceville X, Van Antwerpen P et al (2009) A large-bolus injection, but not continuous infusion of sodium selenite improves outcome in peritonitis. Shock 32:140–146
    • View reference on PubMed
  228. Bernard GR, Vincent JL, Laterre PF, Recombinant Human Protein C Worldwide Evaluation in Severe Sepsis (PROWESS) Study Group et al (2001) Efficacy and safety of recombinant human activated protein C for severe sepsis. N Engl J Med 344:699–709
    • View reference on PubMed
  229. Abraham E, Laterre P-F, Garg F et al (2005) Drotrecogin alfa (activated) for adults with severe sepsis and a low risk of death. N Engl J Med 353:1332–1341
    • View reference on PubMed
  230. Nadel S, Goldstein B, Williams MD et al (2007) Drotrecogin alfa (activated) in children with severe sepsis: a multicentre phase III randomised controlled trial. Lancet 369:836–843
    • View reference on PubMed
  231. http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/DrugSafetyPodcasts/ucm277212.htm. Accessed 18 Dec 2011
  232. Bernard GR, Artigas A, Brigham KL et al (1994) The American-European Consensus Conference on ARDS: definitions, mechanisms, relevant outcomes, and clinical trial coordination. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 149:818–824
    • View reference on PubMed
  233. Ranieri VM, Rubenfeld GD, Thompson BT et al (2012) Acute respiratory distress syndrome: the Berlin definition. JAMA 307:25226–25233
  234. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network (2000) Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with traditional tidal volumes for acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 342:1301–1308
  235. Amato MB, Barbas CS, Medeiros DM et al (1998) Effect of a protective-ventilation strategy on mortality in the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 338:347–354
    • View reference on PubMed
  236. Brochard L, Roudot-Thoraval F, Roupie E et al (1998) Tidal volume reduction for prevention of ventilator-induced lung injury in acute respiratory distress syndrome: the multicenter trail group on tidal volume reduction in ARDS. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 158:1831–1838
    • View reference on PubMed
  237. Brower RG, Shanholtz CB, Fessler HE et al (1999) Prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial comparing traditional versus reduced tidal volume ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients. Crit Care Med 27:1492–1498
    • View reference on PubMed
  238. Stewart TE, Meade MO, Cook DJ et al (1998) Evaluation of a ventilation strategy to prevent barotrauma in patients at high risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 338:355–361
    • View reference on PubMed
  239. Eichacker PQ, Gerstenberger EP, Banks SM et al (2002) Meta-analysis of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome trials testing low tidal volumes. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 166:1510–1514
    • View reference on PubMed
  240. Putensen C, Theuerkauf N, Zinserling J et al (2009) Meta-analysis: ventilation strategies and outcomes of the acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury. Ann Intern Med 151:566–576
    • View reference on PubMed
  241. Burns KE, Adhikari NK, Slutsky AS et al (2011) Pressure and volume limited ventilation for the ventilatory management of patients with acute lung injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE 6:e14623
    • View reference on PubMed
  242. Tobin MJ (2000) Culmination of an era in research on the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 342:1360–1361
    • View reference on PubMed
  243. Marini JJ, Gattinoni L (2004) Ventilatory management of acute respiratory distress syndrome: a consensus of two. Crit Care Med 32:250–255
    • View reference on PubMed
  244. Hager DN, Krishnan JA, Hayden DL et al (2005) Tidal volume reduction in patients with acute lung injury when plateau pressures are not high. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 172:1241–1245
    • View reference on PubMed
  245. Checkley W, Brower R, Korpak A et al (2008) Effects of a clinical trial on mechanical ventilation practices in patients with acute lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 177:1215–1222
    • View reference on PubMed
  246. Kallet RH, Jasmer RM, Luce JM et al (2000) The treatment of acidosis in acute lung injury with tris-hydroxymethyl aminomethane (THAM). Am J Respir Crit Care Med 161:1149–1153
    • View reference on PubMed
  247. Weber T, Tschernich H, Sitzwohl C et al (2000) Tromethamine buffer modifies the depressant effect of permissive hypercapnia on myocardial contractility in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 162:1361–1365
    • View reference on PubMed
  248. Determann RM, Royakkers A, Wolthuis EK et al (2010) Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with conventional tidal volumes for patients without acute lung injury: a preventive randomized controlled trial. Crit Care 14:R1
    • View reference on PubMed
  249. Yilmaz M, Keegan MT, Iscimen R et al (2007) Toward the prevention of acute lung injury: protocol-guided limitation of large tidal volume ventilation and inappropriate transfusion. Crit Care Med 35:1660–1666
    • View reference on PubMed
  250. Gajic O, Dara SI, Mendez JL et al (2004) Ventilator-associated lung injury in patients without acute lung injury at the onset of mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med 32:1817–1824
    • View reference on PubMed
  251. Schultz MJ (2008) Lung-protective mechanical ventilation with lower tidal volumes in patients not suffering from acute lung injury: a review of clinical studies. Med Sci Monit 14:RA22–RA26
  252. Marini JJ, Ravenscraft SA (1992) Mean airway pressure: physiologic determinants and clinical importance—part 1: physiologic determinants and measurements. Crit Care Med 20:1461–1472
    • View reference on PubMed
  253. Gattinoni L, Marcolin R, Caspani ML et al (1985) Constant mean airway pressure with different patterns of positive pressure breathing during the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir 21:275–279
    • View reference on PubMed
  254. Pesenti A, Marcolin R, Prato P et al (1985) Mean airway pressure vs. positive end-expiratory pressure during mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med 13:34–37
    • View reference on PubMed
  255. Mercat A, Richard JC, Vielle B et al (2008) Positive end-expiratory pressure setting in adults with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 299:646–655
    • View reference on PubMed
  256. Meade MO, Cook DJ, Guyatt GH et al (2008) Ventilation strategy using low tidal volumes, recruitment maneuvers, and high positive end-expiratory pressure for acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 299:637–645
    • View reference on PubMed
  257. Brower RG, Lanken PN, MacIntyre N et al (2004) Higher versus lower positive end-expiratory pressures in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 351:327–336
    • View reference on PubMed
  258. Briel M, Meade M, Mercat A et al (2010) Higher vs lower positive end-expiratory pressure in patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 303:865–873
    • View reference on PubMed
  259. Amato MB, Barbas CS, Medeiros DM et al (1995) Beneficial effects of the “open lung approach” with low distending pressures in acute respiratory distress syndrome: a prospective randomized study on mechanical ventilation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 152:1835–1846
    • View reference on PubMed
  260. Gattinoni L, Caironi P, Cressoni M et al (2006) Lung recruitment in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 354:1775–1786
    • View reference on PubMed
  261. Pipeling MR, Fan E (2010) Therapies for refractory hypoxemia in acute respiratory distress syndrome. JAMA 304:2521–2527
    • View reference on PubMed
  262. Fan E, Wilcox ME, Brower RG et al (2008) Recruitment maneuvers for acute lung injury: a systematic review. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 178:1156–1163
    • View reference on PubMed
  263. Stocker R, Neff T, Stein S et al (1997) Prone positioning and low-volume pressure-limited ventilation improve survival in patients with severe ARDS. Chest 111:1008–1017
    • View reference on PubMed
  264. Lamm WJ, Graham MM, Albert RK (1994) Mechanism by which the prone position improves oxygenation in acute lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 150:184–193
    • View reference on PubMed
  265. Jolliet P, Bulpa P, Chevrolet JC (1998) Effects of the prone position on gas exchange and hemodynamics in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med 26:1977–1985
    • View reference on PubMed
  266. Guerin C, Gaillard S, Lemasson S et al (2004) Effects of systematic prone positioning in hypoxemic acute respiratory failure: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 292:2379–2387
    • View reference on PubMed
  267. Taccone P, Pesenti A, Latini R et al (2009) Prone positioning in patients with moderate and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 302:1977–1984
    • View reference on PubMed
  268. Mancebo J, Fernandez R, Blanch L et al (2006) A multicenter trial of prolonged prone ventilation in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 173:1233–1239
    • View reference on PubMed
  269. Gattinoni L, Tognoni G, Pesenti A et al (2001) Effect of prone positioning on the survival of patients with acute respiratory failure. N Engl J Med 345:568–573
    • View reference on PubMed
  270. Sud S, Friedrich JO, Taccone P et al (2010) Prone ventilation reduces mortality in patients with acute respiratory failure and severe hypoxemia: systematic review and meta-analysis. Intensive Care Med 36:585–599
    • View reference on PubMed
  271. Sud S, Sud M, Friedrich JO et al (2010) High frequency oscillation in patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 340:c2327
    • View reference on PubMed
  272. Noah MA, Peek GJ, Finney SJ et al (2011) Referral to an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation center and mortality among patients with severe 2009 influenza A (H1N1). JAMA 306:1659–1668
    • View reference on PubMed
  273. Checkley W (2011) Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a first-line treatment strategy for ARDS: is the evidence sufficiently strong? JAMA 306:1703–1704
    • View reference on PubMed
  274. Peek GJ, Mugford M, Tiruvoipati R et al (2009) Efficacy and economic assessment of conventional ventilator support versus extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe adult respiratory failure (CESAR): a multicenter randomised controlled trial. Lancet 374:1330
  275. Adhaikari NK, Burns KE, Friedrich JO (2007) Effect of nitric oxide on oxygenation and mortality in acute lung injury: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 334:779
  276. Drakulovic MB, Torres A, Bauer TT et al (1999) Supine body position as a risk factor for nosocomial pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients: a randomised trial. Lancet 354:1851–1858
    • View reference on PubMed
  277. van Nieuwenhoven CA, Vandenbroucke-Grauls C, van Tiel FH et al (2006) Feasibility and effects of the semi-recumbent position to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia: a randomized study. Crit Care Med 34:396–402
    • View reference on PubMed
  278. Antonelli M, Conti G, Rocco M et al (1998) A comparison of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation and conventional mechanical ventilation in patients with acute respiratory failure. N Engl J Med 339:429–435
    • View reference on PubMed
  279. Ferrer M, Esquinas A, Leon M et al (2003) Noninvasive ventilation in severe hypoxemic respiratory failure: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 168:1438–1444
    • View reference on PubMed
  280. Rana S, Jenad H, Gay PC et al (2006) Failure of non-invasive ventilation in patients with acute lung injury: observational cohort study. Crit Care 10:R79
    • View reference on PubMed
  281. Domenighetti G, Moccia A, Gayer R (2008) Observational case-control study of non-invasive ventilation in patients with ARDS. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 69:5–10
    • View reference on PubMed
  282. Ely W, Baker AB, Dunagen DP (1996) Effect on the duration of mechanical ventilation of identifying patients capable of breathing spontaneously. New Engl J Med 335:1865–1869
  283. Kress JP, Pohlman AS, O’Connor MF et al (2000) Daily interruption of sedative infusions in critically ill patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. N Engl J Med 342:1471–1477
    • View reference on PubMed
  284. Girard TD, Kress JP, Fuchs BD et al (2008) Efficacy and safety of a paired sedation and ventilator weaning protocol for mechanically ventilated patients in intensive care (awakening and breathing controlled trial): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 371:126–134
    • View reference on PubMed
  285. Iberti TJ, Fischer EP, Leibowitz AB et al (1990) A multicenter study of physicians’ knowledge of the pulmonary artery catheter. JAMA 264:2928–2932
    • View reference on PubMed
  286. Al-Kharrat T, Zarich S, Amoateng-Adjepong Y et al (1999) Analysis of observer variability in measurement of pulmonary artery occlusion pressures. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 160:415–420
    • View reference on PubMed
  287. Connors AF Jr, McCaffree DR, Gray BA (1983) Evaluation of right-heart catheterization in the critically ill patient without acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 308:263–267
    • View reference on PubMed
  288. Osman D, Ridel C, Ray P et al (2007) Cardiac filling pressures are not appropriate to predict hemodynamic response to volume challenge. Crit Care Med 35:64–68
    • View reference on PubMed
  289. Richard C, Warszawski J, Anguel N et al (2003) Early use of the pulmonary artery catheter and outcomes in patients with shock and acute respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 290:2713–2720
    • View reference on PubMed
  290. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Clinical Trials Network, Wheeler AP, Bernard GR et al (2006) Pulmonary-artery versus central venous catheter to guide treatment of acute lung injury. N Engl J Med 354:2213–2224
  291. Sandham JD, Hull RD, Brant RF et al (2003) A randomized, controlled trial of the use of pulmonary-artery catheters in high-risk surgical patients. N Engl J Med 348:5–14
    • View reference on PubMed
  292. Shah MR, Hasselblad V, Stevenson LW et al (2005) Impact of the pulmonary artery catheter in critically ill patients: meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. JAMA 294:1664–1670
    • View reference on PubMed
  293. Harvey S, Harrison DA, Singer M et al (2005) Assessment of the clinical effectiveness of pulmonary artery catheters in management of patients in intensive care (PAC-man): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 366:472–477
    • View reference on PubMed
  294. Harvey S, Young D, Brampton W et al (2006) Pulmonary artery catheters for adult patients in intensive care. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3):CD003408
  295. Sibbald WJ, Short AK, Warshawski FJ et al (1985) Thermal dye measurements of extravascular lung water in critically ill patients: intravascular starling forces and extravascular lung water in the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Chest 87:585–592
    • View reference on PubMed
  296. Martin GS, Mangialardi RJ, Wheeler AP et al (2002) Albumin and furosemide therapy in hypoproteinemic patients with acute lung injury. Crit Care Med 30:2175–2182
    • View reference on PubMed
  297. Mitchell JP, Schuller D, Calandrino FS et al (1992) Improved outcome based on fluid management in critically ill patients requiring pulmonary artery catheterization. Am Rev Respir Dis 145:990–998
    • View reference on PubMed
  298. Schuller D, Mitchell JP, Calandrino FS et al (1991) Fluid balance during pulmonary edema: is fluid gain a marker or a cause of poor outcome? Chest 100:1068–1075
    • View reference on PubMed
  299. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Clinical Trials Network, Wiedemann HP, Wheeler AP et al (2006) Comparison of two fluid-management strategies in acute lung injury. N Engl J Med 354:2564–2575
  300. Perkins GD, McAuley DF, Thickett DR et al (2006) The β-agonist lung injury trial (BALTI): a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 173:281–287
    • View reference on PubMed
  301. Matthay MA, Brower RG, Carson S et al (2011) Randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of an aerolosolized β-2 agonist for treatment of acute lung injury. Am J Resp Crit Care Med 184:561–568
    • View reference on PubMed
  302. Gao Smith F, Perkins DG, Gates S et al (2012) Effect of intravenous β-2 agonist treatment on clinical outcomes in acute respiratory distress syndrome (BALTI-2): a multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 379:229–235
  303. Marx WH, DeMaintenon NL, Mooney KF et al (1999) Cost reduction and outcome improvement in the intensive care unit. J Trauma 46:625–629 (discussion 629–630)
  304. MacLaren R, Plamondon JM, Ramsay KB et al (2000) A prospective evaluation of empiric versus protocol-based sedation and analgesia. Pharmacotherapy 20:662–672
    • View reference on PubMed
  305. Brook AD, Ahrens TS, Schaiff R et al (1999) Effect of a nursing-implemented sedation protocol on the duration of mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med 27:2609–2615
    • View reference on PubMed
  306. Shehabi Y, Bellomo R, Reade MC (2012) Early intensive care sedation predicts long-term mortality in ventilated critically ill patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 186:724–731
  307. Strom T, Martinussen T, Toft P (2010) A protocol of no sedation for critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation: a randomised trial. Lancet 375:475–480
    • View reference on PubMed
  308. Devlin JW, Boleski G, Mlynarek M et al (1999) Motor activity assessment scale: a valid and reliable sedation scale for use with mechanically ventilated patients in an adult surgical intensive care unit. Crit Care Med 27:1271–1275
    • View reference on PubMed
  309. De Jonghe B, Cook D, Sharshar T et al (1998) Groupe de réflexion et d’étude sur les neuromyopathies en réanimation: acquired neuromuscular disorders in critically ill patients: a systematic review. Intensive Care Med 24:1242–1250
    • View reference on PubMed
  310. Kollef MH, Levy NT, Ahrens TS et al (1998) The use of continuous IV sedation is associated with prolongation of mechanical ventilation. Chest 114:541–548
    • View reference on PubMed
  311. Mehta S, Burry L, Cook D et al (2012) SLEAP Investigators; Canadian Critical Care Trials Group:  Daily sedation interruption in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients cared for with a sedation protocol: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 308:1985–1992
  312. Kress JP, Vinayak AG, Levitt J et al (2007) Daily sedative interruption in mechanically ventilated patients at risk for coronary artery disease. Crit Care Med 35:365–371
    • View reference on PubMed
  313. Schweickert WD, Pohlman MC, Pohlman AS et al (2009) Early physical and occupational therapy in mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 373:1874–1882
    • View reference on PubMed
  314. Klessig HT, Geiger HJ, Murray MJ et al (1992) A national survey on the practice patterns of anesthesiologist intensivists in the use of muscle relaxants. Crit Care Med 20:1341–1345
    • View reference on PubMed
  315. Murray MJ, Cowen J, DeBlock H et al (2002) Clinical practice guidelines for sustained neuromuscular blockade in the adult critically ill patient. Crit Care Med 30:142–156
    • View reference on PubMed
  316. Hansen-Flaschen JH, Brazinsky S, Basile C et al (1991) Use of sedating drugs and neuromuscular blocking agents in patients requiring mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure: a national survey. JAMA 266:2870–2875
    • View reference on PubMed
  317. Freebairn RC, Derrick J, Gomersall CD et al (1997) Oxygen delivery, oxygen consumption, and gastric intramucosal pH are not improved by a computer-controlled, closed-loop, vecuronium infusion in severe sepsis and septic shock. Crit Care Med 25:72–77
    • View reference on PubMed
  318. Papazian L, Forel JM, Gacouin A et al (2010) Neuromuscular blockers in early acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 363:1107–1116
    • View reference on PubMed
  319. Forel JM, Roch A, Marin V et al (2006) Neuromuscular blocking agents decrease inflammatory response in patients presenting with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med 34:2749–2757
    • View reference on PubMed
  320. Shapiro BA, Warren J, Egol AB et al (1995) Practice parameters for sustained neuromuscular blockade in the adult critically ill patient: an executive summary. Crit Care Med 23:1601–1605
    • View reference on PubMed
  321. Meyer KC, Prielipp RC, Grossman JE et al (1994) Prolonged weakness after infusion of atracurium in two intensive care unit patients. Anesth Analg 78:772–774
    • View reference on PubMed
  322. Lacomis D, Petrella JT, Giuliani MJ (1998) Causes of neuromuscular weakness in the intensive care unit: a study of ninety-two patients. Muscle Nerve 21:610–617
    • View reference on PubMed
  323. Rudis MI, Sikora CA, Angus E et al (1997) A prospective, randomized, controlled evaluation of peripheral nerve stimulation versus standard clinical dosing of neuromuscular blocking agents in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 25:575–583
    • View reference on PubMed
  324. Frankel H, Jeng J, Tilly E et al (1996) The impact of implementation of neuromuscular blockade monitoring standards in a surgical intensive care unit. Am Surg 62:503–506
    • View reference on PubMed
  325. Strange C, Vaughan L, Franklin C et al (1997) Comparison of train-of-four and best clinical assessment during continuous paralysis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 156:1556–1561
    • View reference on PubMed
  326. van den Berghe G, Wouters P, Weekers F et al (2001) Intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med 345:1359–1367
    • View reference on PubMed
  327. van den Berghe G, Wilmer A, Hermans G et al (2006) Intensive insulin therapy in the medical ICU. N Engl J Med 354:449–461
    • View reference on PubMed
  328. Arabi YM, Dabbagh OC, Tamim HM (2008) Intensive versus conventional insulin therapy: a randomized controlled trial in medical and surgical critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 36:3190–3197
    • View reference on PubMed
  329. De La Rosa GDC, Hernando Donado J, Restrepo AH (2008) Strict glycaemic control in patients hospitalised in a mixed medical and surgical intensive care unit: a randomised clinical trial. Critical Care 12:R120
  330. COIITSS Study Investigators, Annane D, Cariou A et al (2012) Corticosteroid treatment and intensive insulin therapy for septic shock in adults: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 303:341–348
  331. The NICE-SUGAR Study Investigators (2009) Intensive versus conventional glucose control in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med 360:1283–1297
  332. Preiser JC, Devos P, Ruiz-Santana S (2009) A prospective randomised multi-centre controlled trial on tight glucose control by intensive insulin therapy in adult intensive care units: the Glucontrol study. Intensive Care Med 35:1738–1748
    • View reference on PubMed
  333. Wiener RS, Wiener DC, Larson RJ (2008) Benefits and risks of tight glucose control in critically ill adults: a meta-analysis. JAMA 300:933–936
    • View reference on PubMed
  334. Griesdale DEG, de Souza RJ, van Dam RM et al (2009) Intensive insulin therapy and mortality among critically ill patients: a meta-analysis including NICE-SUGAR study data. CMAJ 180:821–827
    • View reference on PubMed
  335. Marik PE, Preiser JC (2010) Toward understanding tight glycemic control in the ICU: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Chest 137:544–551
    • View reference on PubMed
  336. Friedrich JO, Chant C, Adhikari NKJ (2010) Does intensive insulin therapy really reduce mortality in critically ill surgical patients? A reanalysis of meta-analytic data. Crit Care 14:324–330
    • View reference on PubMed
  337. Kansagara D, Fu R, Freeman M et al (2011) Intensive insulin therapy in hospitalized patients: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med 154:268–282
    • View reference on PubMed
  338. Peberdy MA, Callaway CW, Neumar RW et al (2010) Part 9: post-cardiac arrest care: 2010 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation 122:S768–S786
    • View reference on PubMed
  339. Qaseem A, Humphrey LL, Chou R et al (2011) Use of intensive insulin therapy for the management of glycemic control in hospitalized patients: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med 154:260–267
    • View reference on PubMed
  340. Moghissi ES, Korytkowski MT, Dinardo M et al (2009) American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American Diabetes Association consensus statement on inpatient glycemic control. Diabetes Care 32:1119–1131
    • View reference on PubMed
  341. Jacobi J, Bircher N, Krinsley J et al (2012) Guidelines for the use of insulin infusion for the management of hyperglycemia in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 40:3251–3276
  342. Kauffmann RM, Hayes RM, Jenkins JM et al (2011) Provision of balanced nutrition protects against hypoglycemia in the critically ill surgical patient. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 35:686–694
    • View reference on PubMed
  343. Egi M, Bellomo R, Stachowski E et al (2006) Variability in blood glucose concentrations and short-term mortality in critically ill patients. Anesthesiology 105:233–234
  344. Krinsley JS (2008) Glycemic variability: a strong independent predictor of mortality in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 36:3008–3013
    • View reference on PubMed
  345. Mackenzie IMJ, Whitehouse T, Nightingale PG (2011) The metrics of glycaemic control in critical care. Intensive Care Med 37:435–443
    • View reference on PubMed
  346. Egi M, Bellomo R, Stachowski E (2008) Blood glucose concentration and outcome of critical illness: the impact of diabetes. Crit Care Med 36:2249–2255
    • View reference on PubMed
  347. Krinsley JS (2009) Glycemic variability and mortality in critically ill patients: the impact of diabetes. J Diabetes Sci Technol 3:1292–1301
    • View reference on PubMed
  348. Nichols JH (2002) Bedside testing, glucose monitoring, and diabetes management. In: Kost GJ (ed) Principles of point of care testing. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia
  349. Kanji S, Buffie J, Hutton B et al (2005) Reliability of point-of-care testing for glucose measurement in critically ill adults. Crit Care Med 33:2778–2785
    • View reference on PubMed
  350. Hoedemaekers CW, Klein Gunnewiek JM, Prinsen MA et al (2008) Accuracy of bedside glucose measurement from three glucometers in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 36:3062–3066
    • View reference on PubMed
  351. Khan AI, Vasquez Y, Gray J et al (2006) The variability of results between point-of-care testing glucose meters and the central laboratory analyzer. Arch Pathol Lab Med 130:1527–1532
    • View reference on PubMed
  352. Desachy A, Vuagnat AC, Ghazali AD et al (2008) Accuracy of bedside glucometry in critically ill patients: influence of clinical characteristics and perfusion index. Mayo Clin Proc 83:400–405
    • View reference on PubMed
  353. Fekih Hassen M, Ayed S, Gharbi R et al (2010) Bedside capillary blood glucose measurements in critically ill patients: influence of catecholamine therapy. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 87:87–91
  354. Wilson M, Weinreb J, Soo Hoo GW (2007) Intensive insulin therapy in critical care: a review of a dozen protocols. Diabetes Care 30:1005–1011
    • View reference on PubMed
  355. Newton CA, Smiley D, Bode BW et al (2010) A comparison study of continuous insulin infusion protocols in the medical intensive care unit: computer-guided vs. standard column-based algorithms. J Hosp Med 5:432–437
    • View reference on PubMed
  356. Dortch MJ, Mowery NT, Ozdas A et al (2008) A computerized insulin infusion titration protocol improves glucose control with less hypoglycemia compared to a manual titration protocol in a trauma intensive care unit. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 32:18–27
    • View reference on PubMed
  357. Mauritz W, Sporn P, Schindler I et al (1986) Acute renal failure in abdominal infection: comparison of hemodialysis and continuous arteriovenous and continuous hemofiltration. Anasth Intensivther Nortfallmed 21:212–217
  358. Bartlett RH, Mault JR, Dechert RE et al (1986) Continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration: improved survival in surgical acute renal failure. Surgery 100:400–408
    • View reference on PubMed
  359. Kierdorf H (1991) Continuous versus intermittent treatment: clinical results in acute renal failure. Contrib Nephrol 93:1–12
    • View reference on PubMed
  360. Bellomo R, Mansfield D, Rumble S et al (1992) Acute renal failure in critical illness: conventional dialysis versus continuous hemodiafiltration. Am Soc Artif Intern Organs J 38:M654–M657
  361. Bellomo R, Farmer M, Parkin G et al (1995) Severe acute renal failure: a comparison of acute continuous hemodiafiltration and conventional dialytic therapy. Nephron 71:59–64
    • View reference on PubMed
  362. Kruczinski K, Irvine-Bird K, Toffelmire EB et al (1993) A comparison of continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration and intermittent hemodialysis in acute renal failure patients in intensive care unit. Am Soc Artif Intern Organs J 38:M778–M781
  363. Van Bommel EH, Bouvy ND, Sob KL et al (1995) Acute dialytic support for the critically ill: intermittent hemodialysis versus continuous arteriovenous hemodiafiltration. Am J Nephrol 15:192–200
    • View reference on PubMed
  364. Guerin C, Girard R, Selli JM et al (2002) Intermittent versus continuous renal replacement therapy for acute renal failure in intensive care units: results from a multicenter prospective epidemiological survey. Intensive Care Med 28:1411–1418
    • View reference on PubMed
  365. Kellum JA, Angus DC, Johnson JP et al (2002) Continuous versus intermittent renal replacement therapy: a meta-analysis. Intensive Care Med 28:29–37
    • View reference on PubMed
  366. Tonelli M, Manns B, Feller-Kopman D (2002) Acute renal failure in the intensive care unit: a systematic review of the impact of dialytic modality on mortality and renal recovery. Am J Kidney Dis 40:875–885
    • View reference on PubMed
  367. Mehta RL, McDonald B, Gabbai FB et al (2001) A randomized clinical trial of continuous versus intermittent dialysis for acute renal failure. Kidney Int 60:1154–1163
    • View reference on PubMed
  368. Gasparovic V, Filipovic-Greie I, Merkler M et al (2003) Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) or intermittent hemodialysis (IHD)—what is the procedure of choice in critically ill patients? Ren Fail 25:855–862
    • View reference on PubMed
  369. Augustine JJ, Sandy D, Seifert TH et al (2004) A randomized controlled trial comparing intermittent with continuous dialysis in patients with ARF. Am J Kidney Dis 44:1000–1007
    • View reference on PubMed
  370. Uehlinger DE, Jakob SM, Ferrari P et al (2005) Comparison of continuous and intermittent renal replacement therapy for acute renal failure. Nephrol Dial Transpl 20:1630–1637
  371. Vinsonneau C, Camus C, Combes A et al (2006) Continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration versus intermittent haemodialysis for acute renal failure in patients with multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome: a multicentre randomised trial. Lancet 368:379–385
    • View reference on PubMed
  372. John S, Griesbach D, Baumgärtel M et al (2001) Effects of continuous haemofiltration vs intermittent haemodialysis on systemic haemodynamics and splanchnic regional perfusion in septic shock patients: a prospective, randomized clinical trial. Nephrol Dial Transpl 16:320–327
  373. Misset B, Timsit JF, Chevret S et al (1996) A randomized cross-over comparison of the hemodynamic response to intermittent hemodialysis and continuous hemofiltration in ICU patients with acute renal failure. Intensive Care Med 22:742–746
    • View reference on PubMed
  374. Ronco C, Bellomo R, Homel P et al (2000) Effects of different doses in continuous venovenous haemofiltration on outcomes of acute renal failure: a prospective randomized trial. Lancet 356:26–30
    • View reference on PubMed
  375. Bouman CS, Oudemans-Van Straaten HM, Tijssen JG et al (2002) Effects of early high-volume continuous venovenous hemofiltration on survival and recovery of renal function in intensive care patients with acute renal failure: a prospective, randomized trial. Crit Care Med 30:2205–2211
    • View reference on PubMed
  376. The VA/NIH Acute Renal Failure Trial Network (2008) Intensity of renal support in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. N Engl J Med 359:7–20
  377. The RENAL Replacement Therapy Study Investigators (2009) Intensity of continuous renal-replacement therapy in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med 361:1627–1638
  378. Cooper DJ, Walley KR, Wiggs BR et al (1990) Bicarbonate does not improve hemodynamics in critically ill patients who have lactic acidosis: a prospective, controlled clinical study. Ann Intern Med 112:492–498
    • View reference on PubMed
  379. Mathieu D, Neviere R, Billard V et al (1991) Effects of bicarbonate therapy on hemodynamics and tissue oxygenation in patients with lactic acidosis: a prospective, controlled clinical study. Crit Care Med 19:1352–1356
    • View reference on PubMed
  380. Cade JF (1982) High risk of the critically ill for venous thromboembolism. Crit Care Med 10:448–450
    • View reference on PubMed
  381. Halkin H, Goldberg J, Modal M et al (1982) Reduction in mortality in general medical in-patients by low-dose heparin prophylaxis. Ann Intern Med 96:561–565
    • View reference on PubMed
  382. Pingleton SK, Bone RC, Pingleton WW et al (1981) Prevention of pulmonary emboli in a respiratory intensive care unit. Chest 79:647–650
    • View reference on PubMed
  383. Belch JJ, Lowe DO, Ward AG et al (1981) Prevention of deep vein thrombosis in medical patients by low-dose heparin. Scott Med J 26:115–117
    • View reference on PubMed
  384. Gardlund B (1996) Randomized, controlled trial of low-dose heparin for prevention of fatal pulmonary embolism in patients with infectious diseases: the Heparin Prophylaxis Study Group. Lancet 347:1357–1361
    • View reference on PubMed
  385. Samama MM, Cohen AT, Darmon JY et al (1999) A comparison of enoxaparin with placebo for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in acutely ill medical patients. N Engl J Med 341:793–800
    • View reference on PubMed
  386. Dahan R, Houlbert D, Caulin C et al (1986) Prevention of deep vein thrombosis in elderly medical in-patients by a low molecular weight heparin: a randomized double-blind trial. Haemostasis 16:159–164
    • View reference on PubMed
  387. Hirsch DR, Ingenito EP, Goldhaber SZ (1995) Prevalence of deep venous thrombosis among patients in medical intensive care. JAMA 274:335–337
    • View reference on PubMed
  388. Fraisse F, Holzapfel L, Couland JM et al (2000) Nadroparin in the prevention of deep vein thrombosis in acute decompensated COPD: the Association of Non-University Affiliated Intensive Care Specialist Physicians of France. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 161:1109–1114
    • View reference on PubMed
  389. Kupfer Y, Anwar J, Seneviratne C et al (1999) Prophylaxis with subcutaneous heparin significantly reduces the incidence of deep venous thrombophlebitis in the critically ill. Abstr Am J Crit Care Med 159(Suppl):A519
  390. Geerts W, Cook D, Shelby R et al (2002) Venous thromboembolism and its prevention in critical care. J Crit Care 17:95–104
    • View reference on PubMed
  391. Attia J, Ray JG, Cook DJ et al (2001) Deep vein thrombosis and its prevention in critically ill adults. Arch Intern Med 161:1268–1279
    • View reference on PubMed
  392. PROTECT Investigators for the Canadian Critical Care Trials Group and the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Clinical Trials Group, Cook D, Meade M et al (2011) Dalteparin versus unfractionated heparin in critically ill patients. New Engl J Med 364:1305–1314
  393. King CS, Holley AB, Jackson JF et al (2007) Twice vs three times daily heparin dosing for thromboembolism prophylaxis in the general medical population: a meta-analysis. Chest 131:507–516
    • View reference on PubMed
  394. Douketis J, Cook D, Meade M et al (2008) Prophylaxis against deep vein thrombosis in critically ill patients with severe renal insufficiency with the low-molecular-weight heparin dalteparin: an assessment of safety and pharmacodynamics: the DIRECT study. Arch Intern Med 168:1805–1812
    • View reference on PubMed
  395. Vanek VW (1998) Meta-analysis of effectiveness of intermittent pneumatic compression devices with a comparison of thigh-high to knee-high sleeves. Am Surg 64:1050–1058
    • View reference on PubMed
  396. Turpie AG, Hirsh J, Gent M et al (1989) Prevention of deep vein thrombosis in potential neurosurgical patients: a randomized trial comparing graduated compression stockings alone or graduated compression stockings plus intermittent pneumatic compression with control. Arch Intern Med 149:679–681
    • View reference on PubMed
  397. Agu O, Hamilton G, Baker D (1999) Graduated compression stocking in the prevention of venous thromboembolism. Br J Surg 86:992–1004
    • View reference on PubMed
  398. Kakkos SK, Caprini JA, Geroulakos G et al (2008) Combined intermittent pneumatic leg compression and pharmacological prophylaxis for prevention of venous thromboembolism in high-risk patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4): CD005258
  399. German Hip Arthroplasty Trial Group (GHAT) (1992) Prevention of deep vein thrombosis with low molecular-weight heparin in patients undergoing total hip replacement: a randomized trial. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 111:110–120
  400. Colwell CW, Spiro TE, Trowbridge AA et al (1994) Use of enoxaparin, a low-molecular-weight heparin, and unfractionated heparin for the prevention of deep venous thrombosis after elective hip replacement: a clinical trial comparing efficacy and safety. J Bone Joint Surg Am 76:3–14
    • View reference on PubMed
  401. Geerts WH, Jay RM, Code KI et al (1996) A comparison of low-dose heparin with low-molecular-weight heparin as prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism after major trauma. N Engl J Med 335:701–707
    • View reference on PubMed
  402. Guyatt GH, Akl EA, Crowther M et al (2012) Executive summary: antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest 141(Suppl 2):7S–47S
  403. Basso N, Bagarani M, Materia A et al (1981) Cimetidine and antacid prophylaxis of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding in high risk patients. Am J Surg 141:339–342
    • View reference on PubMed
  404. Bresalier RS, Grendell JH, Cello JP et al (1987) Sucralfate versus titrated antacid for the prevention of acute stress-related gastrointestinal hemorrhage in critically ill patients. Am J Med 83:110–116
    • View reference on PubMed
  405. Poleski MH, Spanier AH (1986) Cimetidine versus antacids in the prevention of stress erosions in critically ill patients. Am J Gastroenterol 81:107–111
    • View reference on PubMed
  406. Stothert JC, Simonowitz DA, Dellinger EP et al (1980) Randomized prospective evaluation of cimetidine and antacid control of gastric pH in the critically ill. Ann Surg 192:169–174
    • View reference on PubMed
  407. Cook DJ, Fuller HD, Guyatt GH et al (1994) Risk factors for gastrointestinal bleeding in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med 330:377–381
    • View reference on PubMed
  408. Schuster DP, Rowley H, Feinstein S et al (1984) Prospective evaluation of the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding after admission to a medical intensive care unit. Am J Med 76:623–629
    • View reference on PubMed
  409. Kahn JM, Doctor JN, Rubenfeld GD (2006) Stress ulcer prophylaxis in mechanically ventilated patients: integrating evidence and judgment using a decision analysis. Intensive Care Med 32:1151–1158
    • View reference on PubMed
  410. Cook DJ, Reeve BK, Guyatt GH et al (1996) Stress ulcer prophylaxis in critically ill patients: resolving discordant meta-analyses. JAMA 275:308–314
    • View reference on PubMed
  411. Marik P, Vasu T, Hirani A et al (2010) Stress ulcer prophylaxis in the new millennium: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care Med 38:222–228
  412. Howell MD, Novack C, Grgurich P et al (2010) Iatrogenic gastric acid suppression and the risk of nosocomial Clostridium difficile infection. Arch Intern Med 170:784–790
    • View reference on PubMed
  413. Leonard J, Marshall JK, Moayyedi P (2007) Systematic review of the risk of enteric infection in patients taking acid supression. Am J Gastroenterol 102:2047–2056
    • View reference on PubMed
  414. Cook D, Guyatt G, Marshall J et al (1998) A comparison of sucralfate and ranitidine for the prevention of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients requiring mechanical ventilation. N Engl J Med 338:791–797
    • View reference on PubMed
  415. Lin P, Chang C, Hsu P et al (2010) The efficacy and safety of proton pump inhibitors vs histamine-2 receptor antagonists for stress ulcer bleeding prophylaxis among critical care patients: a meta-analysis. Crit Care Med 38:1197–1205
  416. Pongprasobchai S, Kridkratoke S, Nopmaneejumruslers C (2009) Proton pump inhibitors for the prevention of stress-related mucosal disease in critically-ill patients: a meta-analysis. J Med Assoc Thai 92:632–637
    • View reference on PubMed
  417. Alhazzani W, Alshahrani M, Moayyedi P et al (2012) Stress ulcer prophylaxis in critically ill patients: review of the evidence. Pol Arch Med Wewn 122:107–114
    • View reference on PubMed
  418. Moore EE, Jones TN (1986) Benefits of immediate jejunostomy feeding after major abdominal trauma: a prospective, randomized study. J Trauma 26:874–881
    • View reference on PubMed
  419. Chiarelli A, Enzi G, Casadei A et al (1990) Very early nutrition supplementation in burned patients. Am J Clin Nutr 51:1035–1039
    • View reference on PubMed
  420. Eyer SD, Micon LT, Konstantinides FN et al (1993) Early enteral feeding does not attenuate metabolic response after blunt trauma. J Trauma 34:639–643
    • View reference on PubMed
  421. Chuntrasakul C, Siltharm S, Chinswangwatanakul V et al (1996) Early nutritional support in severe traumatic patients. J Med Assoc Thai 79:21–26
    • View reference on PubMed
  422. Singh G, Ram RP, Khanna SK (1998) Early postoperative enteral feeding in patients with nontraumatic intestinal perforation and peritonitis. J Am Coll Surg 187:142–146
    • View reference on PubMed
  423. Kompan L, Kremzar B, Gadzijev E et al (1999) Effects of early enteral nutrition on intestinal permeability and the development of multiple organ failure after multiple injury. Intensive Care Med 25:157–161
    • View reference on PubMed
  424. Minard G, Kudsk KA, Melton S et al (2000) Early versus delayed feeding with an immune-enhancing diet in patients with severe head injuries. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 24:145–149
    • View reference on PubMed
  425. Pupelis G, Selga G, Austrums E et al (2001) Jejunal feeding, even when instituted late, improves outcomes in patients with severe pancreatitis and peritonitis. Nutrition 17:91–94
    • View reference on PubMed
  426. Kompan L, Vidmar G, Spindler-Vesel A et al (2004) Is early enteral nutrition a risk factor for gastric intolerance and pneumonia? Clin Nutr 23:527–532
    • View reference on PubMed
  427. Nguyen NQ, Fraser RJ, Bryant LK et al (2008) The impact of delaying enteral feeding on gastric emptying, plasma cholecystokinin, and peptide YY concentrations in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 36:1469–1474
    • View reference on PubMed
  428. Marik PE, Zaloga GP (2001) Early enteral nutrition in acutely ill patients: a systematic review. Crit Care Med 29:2264–2270
    • View reference on PubMed
  429. Heyland DK, Dhaliwal R, Drover JW et al (2003) Canadian clinical practice guidelines for nutrition support in mechanically ventilated, critically ill adult patients. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 27:355–373
    • View reference on PubMed
  430. Doig GS, Heighes PT, Simpson F et al (2009) Early enteral nutrition, provided within 24 hours of injury or intensive care unit admission, significantly reduces mortality in critically ill patients: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Intensive Care Med 35:2018–2027
    • View reference on PubMed
  431. Taylor SJ, Fettes SB, Jewkes C et al (1999) Prospective, randomized, controlled trial to determine the effect of early enhanced enteral nutrition on clinical outcome in mechanically ventilated patients suffering head injury. Crit Care Med 27:2525–2531
    • View reference on PubMed
  432. Ibrahim EH, Mehringer L, Prentice D et al (2002) Early versus late enteral feeding of mechanically ventilated patients: results of a clinical trial. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 26:174–181
    • View reference on PubMed
  433. Rice TW, Mogan S, Hays MA et al (2011) Randomized trial of initial trophic versus full-energy enteral nutrition in mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory failure. Crit Care Med 39:967–974
    • View reference on PubMed
  434. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Clinical Trials Network, Rice TW, Wheeler AP, Thompson BT et al (2012) Trophic vs full enteral feeding in patients with acute lung injury: the EDEN randomized trial. JAMA 137:795–803
  435. Arabi YM, Tamim HM, Dhar GS et al (2011) Permissive underfeeding and intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 93:569–577
    • View reference on PubMed
  436. Cerra FB, McPherson JP, Konstantinides FN et al (1988) Enteral nutrition does not prevent multiple organ failure syndrome (MOFS) after sepsis. Surgery 104:727–733
    • View reference on PubMed
  437. Heyland DK, MacDonald S, Keefe L et al (1998) Total parenteral nutrition in the critically ill patient: a meta-analysis. JAMA 280:2013–2019
    • View reference on PubMed
  438. Braunschweig CL, Levy P, Sheean PM et al (2001) Enteral compared with parenteral nutrition: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 74:534–542
    • View reference on PubMed
  439. Gramlich L, Kichian K, Pinilla J et al (2004) Does enteral nutrition compared to parenteral nutrition result in better outcomes in critically ill adult patients? A systematic review of the literature. Nutrition 20:843–848
    • View reference on PubMed
  440. Dhaliwal R, Jurewitsch B, Harrietha D et al (2004) Combination enteral and parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients: harmful or beneficial? A systematic review of the evidence. Intensive Care Med 30:1666–1671
    • View reference on PubMed
  441. Peter JV, Moran JL, Phillips-Hughes J (2005) A meta-analysis of treatment outcomes of early enteral versus early parenteral nutrition in hospitalized patients. Crit Care Med 33:213–220
    • View reference on PubMed
  442. Simpson F, Doig GS (2005) Parenteral vs. enteral nutrition in the critically ill patient: a meta-analysis of trials using the intention to treat principle. Intensive Care Med 31:12–23
    • View reference on PubMed
  443. Koretz RL, Avenell A, Lipman TO et al (2007) Does enteral nutrition affect clinical outcome? A systematic review of the randomized trials. Am J Gastroenterol 102:412–429 (quiz 468)
    • View reference on PubMed
  444. Casaer MP, Mesotten D, Hermans G et al (2011) Early versus late parenteral nutrition in critically ill adults. N Engl J Med 365:506–517
    • View reference on PubMed
  445. Beale RJ, Bryg DJ, Bihari DJ (1999) Immunonutrition in the critically ill: a systematic review of clinical outcome. Crit Care Med 27:2799–2805
    • View reference on PubMed
  446. Heyland DK, Novak F, Drover JW et al (2001) Should immunonutrition become routine in critically ill patients? A systematic review of the evidence. JAMA 286:944–953
    • View reference on PubMed
  447. Montejo JC, Zarazaga A, Lopez-Martinez J et al (2003) Immunonutrition in the intensive care unit: a systematic review and consensus statement. Clin Nutr 22:221–233
    • View reference on PubMed
  448. Marik PE, Zaloga GP (2008) Immunonutrition in critically ill patients: a systematic review and analysis of the literature. Intensive Care Med 34:1980–1990
    • View reference on PubMed
  449. Kieft H, Roos AN, van Drunen JD et al (2005) Clinical outcome of immunonutrition in a heterogeneous intensive care population. Intensive Care Med 31:524–532
    • View reference on PubMed
  450. Tugrul S, Ozcan PE, Akinci IO et al (2004) The effects of immunonutrition on the development of nosocomial infections and on clinical outcome in critically ill patients [in Turkish]. Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg 10:89–96
    • View reference on PubMed
  451. Radrizzani D, Bertolini G, Facchini R et al (2006) Early enteral immunonutrition vs. parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients without severe sepsis: a randomized clinical trial. Intensive Care Med 32:1191–1198
    • View reference on PubMed
  452. Bertolini G, Iapichino G, Radrizzani D et al (2003) Early enteral immunonutrition in patients with severe sepsis: results of an interim analysis of a randomized multicentre clinical trial. Intensive Care Med 29:834–840
    • View reference on PubMed
  453. Suchner U, Kuhn KS, Furst P (2000) The scientific basis of immunonutrition. Proc Nutr Soc 59:553–563
    • View reference on PubMed
  454. Santora R, Kozar RA (2010) Molecular mechanisms of pharmaconutrients. J Surg Res 161:288–294
    • View reference on PubMed
  455. Bower RH, Cerra FB, Bershadsky B et al (1995) Early enteral administration of a formula (Impact) supplemented with arginine, nucleotides, and fish oil in intensive care unit patients: results of a multicenter, prospective, randomized, clinical trial. Crit Care Med 23:436–449
    • View reference on PubMed
  456. Galban C, Montejo JC, Mesejo A et al (2000) An immune-enhancing enteral diet reduces mortality rate and episodes of bacteremia in septic intensive care unit patients. Crit Care Med 28:643–648
    • View reference on PubMed
  457. Caparros T, Lopez J, Grau T (2001) Early enteral nutrition in critically ill patients with a high-protein diet enriched with arginine, fiber, and antioxidants compared with a standard high-protein diet: the effect on nosocomial infections and outcome. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 25:299–308
    • View reference on PubMed
  458. Preiser JC, Berre PJ, Van Gossum A et al (2001) Metabolic effects of arginine addition to the enteral feeding of critically ill patients. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 25:182–187
    • View reference on PubMed
  459. Novak F, Heyland DK, Avenell A et al (2002) Glutamine supplementation in serious illness: a systematic review of the evidence. Crit Care Med 30:2022–2029
    • View reference on PubMed
  460. Avenell A (2006) Glutamine in critical care: current evidence from systematic reviews. Proc Nutr Soc 65:236–241
    • View reference on PubMed
  461. Jiang H, Chen W, Hu W et al (2009) The impact of glutamine-enhanced enteral nutrition on clinical outcome of patients with critical illness: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (in Chinese). Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi 25:325–330
    • View reference on PubMed
  462. Avenell A (2009) Hot topics in parenteral nutrition: current evidence and ongoing trials on the use of glutamine in critically ill patients and patients undergoing surgery. Proc Nutr Soc 68:261–268
    • View reference on PubMed
  463. Tian H, Wang KF, Wu TJ (2006) Effect of total parenteral nutrition with supplementation of glutamine on the plasma diamine oxidase activity and d-lactate content in patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (in Chinese). Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 18:616–618
    • View reference on PubMed
  464. Cai GL, Yan J, Yu YH et al (2006) Influence of glutamine and growth hormone intensified nutrition support on immunomodulation in critically ill elderly patients (in Chinese). Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 18:595–598
    • View reference on PubMed
  465. Grau T, Bonet A, Minambres E et al (2011) The effect of L-alanyl-l-glutamine dipeptide supplemented total parenteral nutrition on infectious morbidity and insulin sensitivity in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 39:1263–1268
    • View reference on PubMed
  466. Wernerman J, Kirketeig T, Andersson B et al (2011) Scandinavian glutamine trial: a pragmatic multi-centre randomised clinical trial of intensive care unit patients. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 55:812–818
    • View reference on PubMed
  467. Fuentes-Orozco C, Anaya-Prado R, Gonzalez-Ojeda A et al (2004) L-alanyl-l-glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition improves infectious morbidity in secondary peritonitis. Clin Nutr 23:13–21
    • View reference on PubMed
  468. Beale RJ, Sherry T, Lei K et al (2008) Early enteral supplementation with key pharmaconutrients improves sequential organ failure assessment score in critically ill patients with sepsis: outcome of a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial. Crit Care Med 36:131–144
    • View reference on PubMed
  469. Trial of glutamine and antioxidant supplementation in critically ill patients (REDOXS). http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00133978?term=NCT00133978&rank=1
  470. Pontes-Arruda A, Demichele S, Seth A et al (2008) The use of an inflammation-modulating diet in patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome: a meta-analysis of outcome data. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 32:596–605
    • View reference on PubMed
  471. Pontes-Arruda A, Aragao AM, Albuquerque JD (2006) Effects of enteral feeding with eicosapentaenoic acid, gamma-linolenic acid, and antioxidants in mechanically ventilated patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Crit Care Med 34:2325–2333
    • View reference on PubMed
  472. Gadek JE, DeMichele SJ, Karlstad MD et al (1999) Effect of enteral feeding with eicosapentaenoic acid, gamma-linolenic acid, and antioxidants in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Enteral Nutrition in ARDS Study Group. Crit Care Med 27:1409–1420
    • View reference on PubMed
  473. Singer P, Theilla M, Fisher H et al (2006) Benefit of an enteral diet enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid and gamma-linolenic acid in ventilated patients with acute lung injury. Crit Care Med 34:1033–1038
    • View reference on PubMed
  474. Pontes-Arruda A, Martins LF, de Lima SM et al (2011) Enteral nutrition with eicosapentaenoic acid, gamma-linolenic acid and antioxidants in the early treatment of sepsis: Results from a multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blinded, controlled study: The INTERSEPT study. Crit Care 15:R144
    • View reference on PubMed
  475. Rice TW, Wheeler AP, Thompson BT et al (2011) Enteral omega-3 fatty acid, gamma-linolenic acid, and antioxidant supplementation in acute lung injury. JAMA 306:1574–1581
    • View reference on PubMed
  476. Stapleton RD, Martin TR, Weiss NS et al (2011) A phase II randomized placebo-controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acids for the treatment of acute lung injury. Crit Care Med 39:1655–1662
    • View reference on PubMed
  477. Grau-Carmona T, Moran-Garcia V, Garcia-de-Lorenzo A et al (2011) Effect of an enteral diet enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid, gamma-linolenic acid and anti-oxidants on the outcome of mechanically ventilated, critically ill, septic patients. Clin Nutr 30:578–584
    • View reference on PubMed
  478. Friesecke S, Lotze C, Kohler J et al (2008) Fish oil supplementation in the parenteral nutrition of critically ill medical patients: a randomised controlled trial. Intensive Care Med 34:1411–1420
    • View reference on PubMed
  479. Barbosa VM, Miles EA, Calhau C et al (2010) Effects of a fish oil containing lipid emulsion on plasma phospholipid fatty acids, inflammatory markers, and clinical outcomes in septic patients: a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Crit Care 14:R5
    • View reference on PubMed
  480. Gupta A, Govil D, Bhatnagar S et al (2011) Efficacy and safety of parenteral omega 3 fatty acids in ventilated patients with acute lung injury. Indian J Crit Care Med 15:108–113
    • View reference on PubMed
  481. Thompson BT, Cox PN, Antonelli M et al (2004) Challenges in end-of-life care in the ICU: statement of the 5th international consensus conference in critical care: Brussels, Belgium, April 2003: executive summary. Crit Care Med 32:1781–1784
    • View reference on PubMed
  482. Sprung CL, Cohen SL, Sjokvist P et al (2003) End of life practices in European intensive care units: the Ethicus Study. JAMA 290:790–797
    • View reference on PubMed
  483. White DB, Engelberg RA, Wenrich MD et al (2010) The language of prognostication in the intensive care units. Med Decis Making 30:76–83
    • View reference on PubMed
  484. Nelson JE, Bassett R, Boss RD et al (2010) Models for structuring a clinical initiative to enhance palliative care in the intensive care unit: a report from the IPAL-ICU Project (improving palliative care in the ICU). Crit Care Med 38:1765–1772
    • View reference on PubMed
  485. Evans LR, Boyd EA, Malvar G et al (2009) Surrogate decision-makers’ perspectives on discussing prognosis in the face of uncertainty. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 179:48–53
    • View reference on PubMed
  486. Lee Char SJ, Evans LR, Malvar GL et al (2010) A randomized trial of two methods to disclose prognosis to surrogate decision makers in intensive care units. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 182:905–909
    • View reference on PubMed
  487. Azoulay E, Metnizt B, Sprung CL et al (2009) End-of-life practices in 282 intensive care units: data from the SAPS 3 database. Int Care Med 35:623–630
  488. Azoulay E, Timsit JF, Sprung CL et al (2009) Prevalence and factors of intensive care unit conflicts: the Conflicus study. A J Resp Crit Care Med 180:854–860
  489. Bertolini G, Boffelli S, Malacarne P et al (2010) End-of-life decision making and quality of ICU performance: an observational study in 84 Italian units. Int Care Med 36:1495–1504
  490. Detering KM, Hancock AD, Reade MC et al (2010) The impact of advance care planning on end of life care in elderly patients: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 340:c1345
    • View reference on PubMed
  491. Marchare Delgado E, Callahan A, Paganelli G et al (2009) Multidisciplinary family meetings in the ICU facilitate end-of-life decision making. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 26:295–302
  492. Lautrette A, Darmon M, Megarbane B et al (2007) A communication strategy and brochure for relatives of patients dying in the ICU. N Engl J Med 356:469–478
    • View reference on PubMed
  493. Norton SA, Hogan LA, Holloway RG et al (2007) Proactive palliative care in the medical intensive care unit: effect on length of stay for selected high-risk patients. Crit Care Med 35:1530–1535
    • View reference on PubMed
  494. Scheunemann LP, McDevitt M, Carson SS et al (2011) Randomized controlled trials of interventions to improve communication in intensive care: a systematic review. Chest 139:543–554
    • View reference on PubMed
  495. Davidson J, Powers K, Hedayat K et al (2007) Clinical practice guidelines for support of the family in the patient-centered intensive care unit: american College of Critical Care Medicine Task Force. Crit Care Med 35:605–622
    • View reference on PubMed
  496. Curtis JR, Treece PD, Nielsen EL et al (2008) Integrating palliative and critical care: evaluation of a quality-improvement intervention. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 178:269–275
    • View reference on PubMed
  497. Odetola FO, Gebremariam A, Freed GL (2007) Patient and hospital correlates of clinical outcomes and resource utilization in severe pediatric sepsis. Pediatrics 119:487–494
    • View reference on PubMed
  498. Typpo KV, Petersen NJ, Hallman DM et al (2009) Day 1 multiple organ dysfunction syndrome is associated with poor functional outcome and mortality in the pediatric intensive care unit. Pediatr Crit Care Med 10:562–570
    • View reference on PubMed
  499. Kissoon N, Carcillo J, Espinosa V et al (2011) Global sepsis initiative. Pediatr Crit Care Med 12:494–503
    • View reference on PubMed
  500. Goldstein B, Giroir B, Randolph A (2005) International pediatric sepsis consensus conference: definitions for sepsis and organ dysfunction in pediatrics. Pediatr Crit Care Med 6:2–8
    • View reference on PubMed
  501. Kuch BA, Carcillo JA, Han YY et al (2005) Definitions of pediatric septic shock. Pediatr Crit Care Med 6:501
    • View reference on PubMed
  502. Cam BV, Tuan DT, Fonsmark L et al (2002) Randomized comparison of oxygen mask treatment vs nasal continuous positive airway pressure in dengue shock syndrome with acute respiratory failure. J Trop Pediatr 48:335–339
    • View reference on PubMed
  503. Duke T, Frank D, Mgone J (2000) Hypoxaemia in children with severe pneumonia in Papua New Guinea. Int J TB Lung Dis 5:511–519
  504. Pollard AJ, Britto J, Nadel S et al (1999) Emergency management of meningococcal disease. Arch Dis Child 80:290–296
    • View reference on PubMed
  505. den Brinker M, Joosten KFM, Lime O et al (2005) Adrenal insufficiency in meningococcal sepsis: bioavailable cortisol levels and impact of interleukin-6 levels and intubation with etomidate on adrenal function and mortality. Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:5110–5117
  506. Han YY, Carcillo JA, Dragotta MA et al (2003) Early reversal of pediatric-neonatal septic shock by community physicians is associated with improved outcome. Pediatrics 112:793–799
    • View reference on PubMed
  507. Carcillo JA, Kuch BA, Han YY et al (2009) Mortality and functional morbidity after use of PALS/APLS by community physicians. Pediatrics 124:500–508
    • View reference on PubMed
  508. Oliveira CF, Nogueira de Sá FR, Oliveira DS et al (2008) Time- and fluid-sensitive resuscitation for hemodynamic support of children in septic shock: barriers to the implementation of the American College of Critical Care Medicine/Pediatric Advanced Life Support Guidelines in a pediatric intensive care unit in a developing world. Pediatr Emerg Care 24:810–815
    • View reference on PubMed
  509. Raimer PL, Han YY, Weber MS et al (2011) A normal capillary refill time of ≤2 seconds is associated with superior vena cava oxygen saturations of ≥70%. J Pediatr 158:968–972
    • View reference on PubMed
  510. Brierly J, Carcillo JA, Choong K et al (2009) Clinical practice parameters for hemodynamic support of pediatric and neonatal patients in septic shock: 2007 update from the American College of Critical Care Medicine. Crit Care Med 37:666–688
  511. de Oliveira CF, de Oliveira DS, Gottschald AF et al (2008) ACCM/PALS haemodynamic support guidelines for paediatric septic shock: an outcomes comparison with and without monitoring central venous oxygen saturation. Intensive Care Med 34:1065–1075
    • View reference on PubMed
  512. Inwald DP, Tasker RC, Peters MJ et al (2009) Paediatric Intensive Care Society sepsis audit. Arch Dis Child 94:348–353
    • View reference on PubMed
  513. Malbrain ML, De laet I, Cheatham M (2007) Consensus conference definitions and recommendations on intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS): the long road to the final publications, how did we get there? Acta Clin Belg (Suppl):54–59
  514. Cheatham ML, Malbrain ML, Kirkpatrick A et al (2007) Results from the international conference of experts on intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome—part II: recommendations. Intensive Care Med 33:951–962
    • View reference on PubMed
  515. Rollins MD, Vogler SA, Mills MK et al (2010) Decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome in children: before it is too late. J Pediatr Surg 45:1324–1329
    • View reference on PubMed
  516. Amado VM, Vilela GP, Queiroz A Jr et al (2011) Effect of a quality improvement intervention to decrease delays in antibiotic delivery in pediatric febrile neutropenia: A pilot study. J Crit Care 26:103, e9–103, e12
  517. Cordery RJ, Roberts CH, Cooper SJ et al (2008) Evaluation of risk factors for the acquisition of bloodstream infections with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species in the intensive care unit: antibiotic management and clinical outcome. J Hosp Infect 68:108–115
    • View reference on PubMed
  518. Ardura MI, Mejías A, Katz KS et al (2007) Daptomycin therapy for invasive gram-positive bacterial infections in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 26:1128–1132
    • View reference on PubMed
  519. Corey AL, Snyder S (2008) Antibiotics in 30 minutes or less for febrile neutropenic patients: a quality control measure in a new hospital. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs 25:208–212
    • View reference on PubMed
  520. Russell NE, Pachorek RE (2000) Clindamycin in the treatment of streptococcal and staphylococcal toxic shock syndromes. Ann Pharmacother 34:936–939
    • View reference on PubMed
  521. Nathwani D, Morgan M, Masterton RG et al (2008) Guidelines for UK practice for the diagnosis and management of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections presenting in the community. J Antimicrob Chemother 61:976–994
    • View reference on PubMed
  522. Gemmell CG, Edwards DI, Fraise AP et al (2006) Guidelines for the prophylaxis and treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in the UK. J Antimicrob Chemother 57:589–608
    • View reference on PubMed
  523. Cawley MJ, Briggs M, Haith LR Jr et al (1999) Intravenous immunoglobulin as adjunctive treatment for streptococcal toxic shock syndrome associated with necrotizing fasciitis: case report and review. Pharmacotherapy 19:1094–1098
    • View reference on PubMed
  524. Rodríguez-Nuñez A, Dosil-Gallardo S, Jordan I et al (2011) Clinical characteristics of children with group A streptococcal toxic shock syndrome admitted to pediatric intensive care units. Eur J Pediatr 170:639–644
    • View reference on PubMed
  525. Paganini HR, Della Latta P, Soto A et al (2010) Community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: 17 years of experience in Argentine children (in Spanish). Arch Argent Pediatr 108:311–317
    • View reference on PubMed
  526. Tilanus AM, de Geus HR, Rijnders BJ et al (2010) Severe group A streptococcal toxic shock syndrome presenting as primary peritonitis: a case report and brief review of the literature. Int J Infect Dis 14(Suppl 3):e208–e212
    • View reference on PubMed
  527. Newland JG, Kearns GL (2008) Treatment strategies for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in pediatrics. Paediatr Drugs 10:367–378
    • View reference on PubMed
  528. Barie PS, Williams MD, McCollam JS et al (2004) Benefit/risk profile of drotrecogin alfa (activated) in surgical patients with severe sepsis. Am J Surg 188:212–220
    • View reference on PubMed
  529. Barie PS, Hydo LJ, Shou J et al (2006) Efficacy and safety of drotrecogin alfa (activated) for the therapy of surgical patients with severe sepsis. Surg Infect 7(Suppl 2):S77–S80
  530. Marshall JC, Maier RV, Jimenez M et al (2004) Source control in the management of severe sepsis and septic shock: an evidence-based review. Crit Care Med 32(Suppl 11):S513–S526
    • View reference on PubMed
  531. Penington AJ, Craft RO, Tilkorn DJ (2007) Plastic surgery management of soft tissue loss in meningococcal septicemia: experience of the Melbourne Royal Children’s Hospital. Ann Plast Surg 58:308–314
    • View reference on PubMed
  532. Wheeler JS, Anderson BJ, De Chalain TM (2003) Surgical interventions in children with meningococcal purpura fulminans: a review of 117 procedures in 21 children. J Pediatr Surg 38:597–603
    • View reference on PubMed
  533. Jackson MA, Colombo J, Boldrey A (2003) Streptococcal fasciitis with toxic shock syndrome in the pediatric patient. Orthop Nurs 22:4–8
    • View reference on PubMed
  534. Xiao-Wu W, Herndon DN, Spies M et al (2002) Effects of delayed wound excision and grafting in severely burned children. Arch Surg 137:1049–1054
    • View reference on PubMed
  535. Haecker FM, Berger D, Schumacher U et al (2000) Peritonitis in childhood: aspects of pathogenesis and therapy. Pediatr Surg Int 16:182–188
    • View reference on PubMed
  536. Gwynne-Jones DP, Stott NS (1999) Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a cause of musculoskeletal sepsis in children. J Pediatr Orthop 19:413–416
    • View reference on PubMed
  537. Wu MH, Tseng YL, Lin MY et al (1997) Surgical treatment of pediatric lung abscess. Pediatr Surg Int 12:293–295
    • View reference on PubMed
  538. Murphy JJ, Granger R, Blair GK et al (1995) Necrotizing fasciitis in childhood. J Pediatr Surg 30:1131–1134
    • View reference on PubMed
  539. Jaber MR, Olafsson S, Fung WL et al (2008) Clinical review of the management of fulminant clostridium difficile infection. Am J Gastroenterol 103:3195–3203
    • View reference on PubMed
  540. Ananthakrishnan AN (2011) Clostridium difficile infection: epidemiology, risk factors and management. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 8:17–26
    • View reference on PubMed
  541. Olivas AD, Umanskiy K, Zuckerbraun B et al (2010) Avoiding colectomy during surgical management of fulminant Clostridium difficile colitis. Surg Infect 11:299–305
  542. Ngo NT, Cao XT, Kneen R et al (2001) Acute management of dengue shock syndrome: a randomized double-blind comparison of 4 intravenous fluid regimens in the first hour. Clin Infect Dis 32:204–213
    • View reference on PubMed
  543. Willis BA, Dung NM, Loan HT et al (2005) Comparison of three fluid solutions for resuscitation in dengue shock syndrome. N Engl J Med 353:877–889
  544. Dung NM, Day NP, Tam DT et al (1999) Fluid replacement in dengue shock syndrome: a randomized, double-blind comparison of four intravenous-fluid regimens. Clin Infect Dis 29:787–794
    • View reference on PubMed
  545. Booy R, Habibi P, Nadel S et al (2001) Reduction in case fatality rate from meningococcal disease associated with improved healthcare delivery. Arch Dis Child 85:386–390
    • View reference on PubMed
  546. Maat M, Buysse CM, Emonts M et al (2007) Improved survival of children with sepsis and purpura: effects of age, gender and era. Crit Care 11:R112
    • View reference on PubMed
  547. Cruz AT, Perry AM, Williams EA et al (2011) Implementation of goal-directed therapy for children with suspected sepsis in the emergency department. Pediatrics 127:e758–e766
    • View reference on PubMed
  548. Kanter RK, Zimmerman JJ, Strauss RH et al (1986) Pediatric emergency intravenous access: evaluation of a protocol. Am J Dis Child 140:132–134
    • View reference on PubMed
  549. Carcillo JA, Davis AL, Zaritsky A (1991) Role of early fluid resuscitation in pediatric septic shock. JAMA 266:1242–1245
    • View reference on PubMed
  550. Ranjit S, Kissoon N, Jayakumar I (2005) Aggressive management of dengue shock syndrome may decrease mortality rate: a suggested protocol. Pediatr Crit Care Med 6:412–419
    • View reference on PubMed
  551. Akech S, Ledermann N, Maitland K (2010) Choice of fluids for resuscitation in children with severe infection and shock. Systematic review. BMJ 341:c4416
    • View reference on PubMed
  552. Santhanam I, Sangareddi S, Venkataraman S et al (2008) A prospective randomized controlled study of two fluid regimens in the initial management of septic shock in the emergency department. Pediatr Emerg Care 24:647–655
    • View reference on PubMed
  553. Ninis N, Phillips C, Bailey L et al (2005) The role of healthcare delivery in the outcome of meningococcal disease in children: case-control study of fatal and non-fatal meningococcal disease in children. BMJ 330:1475
    • View reference on PubMed
  554. Thompson MJ, Ninis N, Perera R et al (2006) Clinical recognition of meningococcal disease in children and adolescents. Lancet 367:397–403
    • View reference on PubMed
  555. Ceneviva G, Paschall JA, Maffei F et al (1998) Hemodynamic support in fluid-refractory pediatric septic shock. Pediatrics 102:e19
    • View reference on PubMed
  556. Choong K, Bohn D, Fraser DD et al (2009) Vasopressin in pediatric vasodilatory shock: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 180:632–639
    • View reference on PubMed
  557. Yildizdas D, Yapicioglu H, Celik U et al (2008) Terlipressin as a rescue therapy for catecholamine-resistant septic shock in children. Intensive Care Med 34:511–517
    • View reference on PubMed
  558. Rodriguez-Nunez A, Lopez-Herce J, Gil-Anton J et al (2006) Tescue treatment with terlipressin in children with refractory septic shock: a clinical study. Crit Care 10:R20
    • View reference on PubMed
  559. Rodríguez-Núñez A, Oulego-Erroz I, Gil-Antón J et al (2010) Continuous terlipressin infusion as rescue treatment in a case series of children with refractory septic shock. Ann Pharmacother 44:1545–1553
    • View reference on PubMed
  560. Keeley SR, Bohn DJ (1988) The use of inotropic and afterload-reducing agents in neonates. Clin Perinatol 15:467–489
    • View reference on PubMed
  561. Barton P, Garcia J, Kouatli A et al (1996) Hemodynamic effects of i.v. milrinone lactate in pediatric patients with septic shock: a prospective, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, interventional study. Chest 109:1302–1312
    • View reference on PubMed
  562. Lindsay CA, Barton P, Lawless S et al (1998) Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of milrinone lactate in pediatric patients with septic shock. J Pediatr 132:329–334
    • View reference on PubMed
  563. Irazuzta JE, Pretzlaff RK, Rowin ME (2001) Amrinone in pediatric refractory septic shock: an open-label pharmacodynamic study. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2:24–28
    • View reference on PubMed
  564. Powell KR, Sugarman LI, Eskenazi AE et al (1991) Normalization of plasma arginine vasopressin concentrations when children with meningitis are given maintenance plus replacement fluid therapy. J Pediatr 117:515–522
  565. Ringe HI, Varnholt V, Gaedicke G (2003) Cardiac rescue with enoximone in volume and catecholamine refractory septic shock. Pediatr Crit Care Med 4:471–475
    • View reference on PubMed
  566. Morelli A, Donati A, Ertmer C et al (2010) Levosimendan for resuscitating the microcirculation in patients with septic shock: a randomized controlled study. Crit Care 14:R232
    • View reference on PubMed
  567. Namachivayam P, Crossland DS, Butt WW et al (2006) Early experience with Levosimendan in children with ventricular dysfunction. Pediatr Crit Care Med 7:445–448 (Erratum in: Pediatr Crit Care Med 2007; 8:197)
    • View reference on PubMed
  568. Magliola R, Moreno G, Vassallo JC et al (2009) Levosimendan, a new inotropic drug: experience in children with acute heart failure (in Spanish). Arch Argent Pediatr 107:139–145
    • View reference on PubMed
  569. Harris E, Schulzke SM, Patole SK (2010) Pentoxifylline in preterm neonates: a systematic review. Paediatr Drugs 12:301–311
    • View reference on PubMed
  570. Meyer DM, Jessen ME (1997) Results of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in children with sepsis: the extracorporeal Life Support Organization. Ann Thorac Surg 63:756–761
    • View reference on PubMed
  571. Goldman AP, Kerr SJ, Butt W et al (1997) Extracorporeal support for intractable cardiorespiratory failure due to meningococcal disease. Lancet 349:466–469
    • View reference on PubMed
  572. Skinner SC, Iocono JA, Ballard HO et al (2012) Improved survival in venovenous vs venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for pediatric noncardiac sepsis patients: a study of the Extracorporeal Life Support registry. J Ped Surg 47:63–67
  573. Domico MB, Ridout DA, Bronicki R et al (2012) The impact of mechanical ventilation time before initiation of extracorporeal life support on survival in pediatric respiratory failure: a review of the extracorporeal life support registry. Pediatr Crit Care Med 13:16–21
  574. Bartlett RH (2007) Extracorporeal support for septic shock. Pediatr Crit Care Med 8:498–499
  575. Maclaren G, Butt W, Best D et al (2011) Central extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for refractory pediatric septic shock. Pediatr Crit Care Med 12:133–136
    • View reference on PubMed
  576. Flagg A, Danziger-Isakov L, Foster C et al (2010) Novel 2009 H1N1 influenza virus infection requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in a pediatric heart transplant recipient. J Heart Lung Transpl 29:582–584
  577. Kumar A, Zarychanski R, Pinto R et al (2009) Critically ill patients with 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection in Canada. JAMA 302:1872–1879
    • View reference on PubMed
  578. Pizarro CF, Troster EJ, Damiani D et al (2005) Absolute and relative adrenal insufficiency in children with septic shock. Crit Care Med 33:855–859
    • View reference on PubMed
  579. Riordan FA, Thomson AP, Ratcliffe JM et al (1999) Admission cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone levels in children with meningococcal disease: evidence of adrenal insufficiency? Crit Care Med 27:2257–2261
    • View reference on PubMed
  580. De Kleijn ED, Joosten KF, Van Rijn B et al (2002) Low serum cortisol in combination with high adrenocorticotrophic hormone concentrations is associated with poor outcome in children with severe meningococcal disease. Pediatr Infect Dis J 21:330–336
    • View reference on PubMed
  581. Markovitz BP, Goodman DM, Watson S et al (2005) A retrospective cohort study of prognostic factors associated with outcome in pediatric severe sepsis: what is the role of steroids? Pediatr Crit Care Med 6:270–274
    • View reference on PubMed
  582. Pizarro CF, Troster EJ (2007) Adrenal function in sepsis and septic shock. J Pediatr (Rio J) 83(Suppl 5):S155–S162
  583. Zimmerman JJ, Williams MD (2011) Adjunctive corticosteroid therapy in pediatric severe sepsis: observations from the RESOLVE study. Pediatr Crit Care Med 12:2–8
    • View reference on PubMed
  584. Lacroix J, Hebert PC, Hutchison JS et al (2007) Transfusion strategies for patients in pediatric intensive care units. N Engl J Med 256:1609–1619
  585. Karam O, Tucci M, Ducruet T et al (2011) Ted blood cell transfusion thresholds in pediatric patients with sepsis. Pediatr Crit Care Med 12:512–518
    • View reference on PubMed
  586. Church GD, Matthay MA, Liu K et al (2009) Blood product transfusions and clinical outcomes in pediatric patients with acute lung injury. Pediatr Crit Care Med 10:297–302
    • View reference on PubMed
  587. López-Herce Cid J, Bustinza Arriortúa A, Alcaraz Romero A et al (2003) Treatment of septic shock with continuous plasma filtration and hemodiafiltration (in Spanish). An Pediatr 59:491–496
  588. Stegmayr BG, Banga R, Berggren L et al (2003) Plasma exchange as rescue therapy in multiple organ failure including acute renal failure. Crit Care Med 31:1730–1736
    • View reference on PubMed
  589. El-Nawawy A, Abbassy AA, El-Bordiny M et al (2004) Evaluation of early detection and management of disseminated intravascular coagulation among Alexandria University pediatric intensive care patients. J Trop Pediatr 50:339–347
    • View reference on PubMed
  590. Campanelli A, Kaya G, Ozsahin AH et al (2004) Purpura fulminans in a child as a complication of chicken pox infection. Dermatology 208:262–264
    • View reference on PubMed
  591. Muntean W (2002) Fresh frozen plasma in the pediatric age group and in congenital coagulation factor deficiency. Thromb Res 107(Suppl 1):S29–S32 (Review)
    • View reference on PubMed
  592. Sánchez Miralles A, Reig Sáenz R, Marco Vera P et al (2002) Abnormalities in coagulation and fibrinolysis in septic shock with purpura (in Spanish). An Esp Pediatr 56:99–100
    • View reference on PubMed
  593. Hazelzet JA, Risseeuw-Appel IM, Kornelisse RF et al (1996) Age-related differences in outcome and severity of DIC in children with septic shock and purpura. Thromb Haemost 76:932–938
    • View reference on PubMed
  594. Churchwell KB, McManus ML, Kent P et al (1995) Intensive blood and plasma exchange for treatment of coagulopathy in meningococcemia. J Clin Apher 10:171–177
    • View reference on PubMed
  595. Ala FA, Greaves M, Jones J et al (2009) Guidelines for the use of fresh frozen plasma. British Committee for Standards in Haematology, Working Party of the Blood Transfusion Task Force. Curr Vasc Pharmacol 7:110–119
  596. Meyer B, Hellstern P (2008) Recommendations for the use of therapeutic plasma. Semin Nephrol 28:447–456
  597. Fortenberry JD (2008) Pediatric critical care management of septic shock prior to acute kidney injury and renal replacement therapy. Semin Nephrol 28:447–456
    • View reference on PubMed
  598. O’Shaughnessy DF, Atterbury C, Bolton M et al (2002) British Committee for Standards in Haematology, Blood Transfusion Task Force. Practical guidelines for the clinical use of plasma. Thromb Res 107(Suppl 1):S53–S57
  599. Muntean W, Schramm W, Seifried E et al (1998) Guideline for the use of fresh-frozen plasma. Medical Directors Advisory Committee, National Blood Transfusion Council. S Afr Med J 88:1344–1347
  600. Nguyen TC, Han YY (2011) Plasma exchange therapy for thrombotic microangiopathies. Organogenesis 1:28–31
  601. van Deuren M, Brandtzaeg P, van der Meer JW (2000) Update on meningococcal disease with emphasis on pathogenesis and clinical management. Clin Microbiol Rev 13:144–166
    • View reference on PubMed
  602. Scharfman WB, Tillotson JR, Taft EG et al (1979) Plasmapheresis for meningococcemia with disseminated intravascular coagulation. N Engl J Med 300:1277–1278
    • View reference on PubMed
  603. van Deuren M, Santman FW, van Dalen R et al (1992) Plasma and whole blood exchange in meningococcal sepsis. Clin Infect Dis 15:424–430
    • View reference on PubMed
  604. Bjorvatn B, Bjertnaes L, Fadnes HO et al (1984) Meningococcal septicaemia treated with combined plasmapheresis and leucapheresis or with blood exchange. Br Med J 288:439–441
  605. Brandtzaeg P, Sirnes K, Folsland B et al (1985) Plasmapheresis in the treatment of severe meningococcal or pneumococcal septicaemia with DIC and fibrinolysis: preliminary data on eight patients. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 178(Suppl):53–55
  606. Drapkin MS, Wisch JS, Gelfand JA et al (1989) Plasmapheresis for fulminant meningococcemia. Pediatr Infect Dis J 8:399–400
    • View reference on PubMed
  607. Schott U, Bjorsell-Ostling E (1995) Sonoclot coagulation analysis and plasma exchange in a case of meningococcal septicaemia. Can J Anaesth 42:64–68
    • View reference on PubMed
  608. Mok Q, Butt W (1996) The outcome of children admitted to intensive care with meningococcal septicaemia. Intensive Care Med 22:259–263
    • View reference on PubMed
  609. Kumar A, Kanagasundaram NS, Collyns TA et al (1998) Plasma exchange and haemodiafiltration in fulminant meningococcal sepsis. Nephrol Dial Transpl 13:484–487
  610. Muntean C, Bloodworth LL, Korn TH (2000) Antithrombin concentrate with plasma exchange in purpura fulminans. Pediatr Crit Care Med 1:84–87
  611. Busund R, Koukline V, Utrobin U et al (2002) Plasmapheresis in severe sepsis and septic shock: a prospective, randomised, controlled trial. Intensive Care Med 28:1434–1439
    • View reference on PubMed
  612. Randolph AG (2009) Management of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome in children. Crit Care Med 37:2448–2454
    • View reference on PubMed
  613. Krishnan J, Morrison W (2007) Airway pressure release ventilation: a pediatric case series. Pediatr Pulmonol 42:83–88
    • View reference on PubMed
  614. Ten IS, Anderson MR (2006) Is high-frequency ventilation more beneficial than low-tidal volume conventional ventilation? Respir Care Clin N Am 12:437–451
    • View reference on PubMed
  615. Rotta AT, Steinhorn DM (2006) Is permissive hypercapnia a beneficial strategy for pediatric acute lung injury? Respir Care Clin N Am 12:371–387
    • View reference on PubMed
  616. Ben Jaballah N, Khaldi A, Mnif K et al (2006) High-frequency oscillatory ventilation in pediatric patients with acute respiratory failure. Pediatr Crit Care Med 7:362–367
    • View reference on PubMed
  617. Kam PC, Cardone D (2007) Propofol infusion syndrome. Anaesthesia 62:690–701
    • View reference on PubMed
  618. Parke TJ, Stevens JE, Rice AS et al (1992) Metabolic acidosis and fatal myocardial failure after propofol infusion in children: five case reports. BMJ 305:613–616
    • View reference on PubMed
  619. den Brinker M, Hokken-Koelega AC, Hazelzet JA et al (2008) One single dose of etomidate negatively influences adrenocortical performance for at least 24 h in children with meningococcal sepsis. Intensive Care Med 34:163–168
  620. Su F, Hammer GB (2011) Dexmedetomidine: pediatric pharmacology, clinical uses and safety. Expert Opin Drug Saf 10:55–66
    • View reference on PubMed
  621. Carcillo JA, Doughty L, Kofos D et al (2003) Cytochrome P450 mediated-drug metabolism is reduced in children with sepsis-induced multiple organ failure. Intensive Care Med 29:980–984
    • View reference on PubMed
  622. Branco RG, Garcia PC, Piva JP et al (2005) Glucose level and risk of mortality in pediatric septic shock. Pediatr Crit Care Med 6:470–472
    • View reference on PubMed
  623. Faustino EV, Apkon M (2005) Persistent hyperglycemia in critically ill children. J Pediatr 146:30–34
    • View reference on PubMed
  624. Jeschke MG, Kulp GA, Kraft R et al (2010) Intensive insulin therapy in severely burned pediatric patients: a prospective randomized trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 182:351–359
    • View reference on PubMed
  625. Day KM, Haub N, Betts H et al (2008) Hyperglycemia is associated with morbidity in critically ill children with meningococcal sepsis. Pediatr Crit Care Med 9:636–640
    • View reference on PubMed
  626. Garcia Branco R, Tasker RC, Ramos Garcia PC et al (2007) Glycemic control and insulin therapy in sepsis and critical illness. J Pediatr (Rio J) 83(Suppl 5):S128–S136
  627. Verhoeven JJ, den Brinker M, Hokken-Koelega AC et al (2011) Pathophysiological aspects of hyperglycemia in children with meningococcal sepsis and septic shock: a prospective, observational cohort study. Crit Care 15:R44
    • View reference on PubMed
  628. Vlasselaers D, Milants I, Desmet L et al (2009) Intensive insulin therapy for patients in paediatric intensive care: a prospective, randomised controlled study. Lancet 373:547–556
    • View reference on PubMed
  629. Foland JA, Fortenberry JD, Warshaw BL et al (2004) Fluid overload before continuous hemofiltration and survival in critically ill children: a retrospective analysis. Crit Care Med 32:1771–1776
    • View reference on PubMed
  630. Santiago MJ, López-Herce J, Urbano J et al (2010) Clinical course and mortality risk factors in critically ill children requiring continuous renal replacement therapy. Intensive Care Med 36:843–849
    • View reference on PubMed
  631. Brophy PD (2008) Renal supportive therapy for pediatric acute kidney injury in the setting of multiorgan dysfunction syndrome/sepsis. Semin Nephrol 28:457–469
    • View reference on PubMed
  632. Krafte-Jacobs B, Sivit CJ, Mejia R et al (1995) Catheter-related thrombosis in critically ill children: comparison of catheters with and without heparin bonding. J Pediatr 126:50–54
    • View reference on PubMed
  633. Pierce CM, Wade A, Mok Q (2000) Heparin-bonded central venous lines reduce thrombotic and infective complications in critically ill children. Intensive Care Med 26:967–972
    • View reference on PubMed
  634. Chaïbou M, Tucci M, Dugas MA et al (1998) Clinically significant upper gastrointestinal bleeding acquired in a pediatric intensive care unit: a prospective study. Pediatrics 102:933–938
    • View reference on PubMed
  635. Gauvin F, Dugas M, Chaïbou M et al (2001) The impact of clinically significant upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a pediatric intensive care unit. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2:294–298
    • View reference on PubMed
  636. Sheridan RL, Yu YM, Prelack K et al (1998) Maximal parenteral glucose oxidation in hypermetabolic young children: a stable isotope study. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 22:212–216
    • View reference on PubMed

Sign In

Connect with ICM

Top 5 Articles Editors Picks Supplement