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Critically ill infants and children with influenza A (H1N1) in pediatric intensive care units in Argentina

Julio A. Farias| Analía Fernández| Ezequiel Monteverde| Nilda Vidal| Pilar Arias| María J. Montes| Gabriela Rodríguez| Mariela Allasia| Maria E. Ratto| Roxana Jaén| Claudia Meregalli| Karina Fiquepron| Ana R. Calvo| Alejandro Siaba| Lidia Albano| Rossana Poterala| Pablo Neira| Andrés Esteban
Pediatric Original
Volume 36, Issue 6 / June , 2010

Pages 1015 - 1022

Abstract

Objective

To determine the epidemiological features, course, and outcomes of critically ill pediatric patients with Influenza A (H1N1) virus.

Design

Prospective cohort of children in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) due to Influenza A (H1N1) virus infection.

Setting

Seventeen medical-surgical PICUs in tertiary care hospital in Argentina.

Patients

All consecutive patients admitted to the PICUs with influenza A (H1N1) viral infection from 15 June to 31 July 2009.

Measurements and main results

Of 437 patients with acute lower respiratory infection in PICUs, 147 (34%) were diagnosed with influenza A (H1N1) related to critical illness. The median age of these patients was 10 months (IQR 3–59). Invasive mechanical ventilation was used in 117 (84%) on admission. The rate of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was 80% (118 of 147 patients). Initial non-invasive ventilation failed in 19 of 22 attempts (86%). Mortality at 28 days was 39% (n = 57). Chronic complex conditions (CCCs), acute renal dysfunction (ARD) and ratio PaO2/FiO2 at day 3 on MV were independently associated with a higher risk of mortality. The odds ratio (OR) for CCCs was 3.06, (CI 95% 1.36–6.84); OR for ARD, 3.38, (CI 95% 1.45–10.33); OR for PaO2/FiO2, 4 (CI 95% 1.57–9.59). The administration of oseltamivir within 24 h after admission had a protective effect: OR 0.2 (CI 95% 0.07–0.54).

Conclusions

In children with ARDS, H1N1 as an etiologic agent confers high mortality, and the presence of CCCs in such patients increases the risk of death.

Keywords

References

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